VIRTUES AND REWARDS OF SPENDING FOR THE CAUSE OF ALLAH

The Holy Quran and the Ahadith of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, the greatest of mankind, contain so many
exhortations to give away Sadaqah that, after going through them, one cannot but conclude that money is not to be
held back at all and that it is meant only for spending for the cause of Allah. The commandments and instructions
on this subject are so numerous that it is difficult to collect even a tenth of them. In my usual way, I am quoting
below, by way of example, a few Ayaat of the Holy Qur’an and some Ahadith with their translation.
Section (a)

AYAAT

1. (The Glorious Qur’an) In it there is guidance for those who fear Allah and believe in things not visible; they
establish Salaat and spend from what We have bestowed on them; and they believe in what has been sent down to
you and sent down before you; and they are certain of the Akhirah. They depend on the guidance from their Lord;
they are the successful. (al-baqarah: 2-5)
Note: These Ayaat contain several subjects, all of which need close consideration:
(a) The Qur’an is a guidance to those who fear Allah Ta’ala Shanohu. Obviously, the one who does not fear his
Lord, nor considers the Lord as his Master, and the one who does not know his Creator, cannot see the path
indicated by the Glorious Qur’an. He alone can see the path who has the capability of seeing. Similarly, a person
whose heart is devoid of the fear of Allah has no regard for His commandments.
(b) “To establish Salaat’ is to perform it with full concentration, following the prescribed manner and fulfilling the
necessary conditions. These have been fully dealt with in my booklet on the ‘Virtues of Salaat,’ wherein I have
quoted a saying of Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho to the effect that: ‘The establishment of Salaat’ depends on correct
performance of Ruku and Sajda, whole-hearted concentration and humility towards Allah. According to Qatadah
Rahmathullah alaihe, perfection in Salaat can be achieved by observing it at its proper time, by proper ‘Wudhu’
(ablution), and by ‘Ruku’ and ‘Sajda’ in the proper way.
(c) The highest achievement of man is to attain ‘Falaah’. The term Falaah implies success and happiness, both in
spiritual and worldly affairs.
Imaam Raghib Rahmathullah alaihe has written that ‘Falaah’ in the worldly sense means attainment of excellence in
certain aspects of worldly life, in respect of lasting satisfaction, contentment and honour. ‘Falaah’ in the life of Akirah
consists in four things:
1. Eternal life
2. Riches that have no shadow of poverty.
3. Honour with no trace of disgrace.
4. Knowledge with no taint of ignorance.
In the case of absolute ‘Falaah’, success is implied in its highest degree, both in spiritual and material life.
2. It is not right righteousness that you turn your faces to the East or West; but the righteous is he who believes in
Allah and the Last Day and the Angels, and the Scripture and the Ambiya and gives his wealth for the love of Him to
kinsfolk and to orphans and the destitute and the wayfarer and to those who ask (in need) and to set slaves free;
and observes Salaat properly; and pays Zakaat. (These are worthwhile attainments). (al-baqarah: 177)
(The Ayat mentions a few more qualities of the righteous and in conclusion, asserts, “Such are they who are truly
sincere. Such are the people who fear Allah”)
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Note: Qatadah Rahmathullah alaihe says that the Jews used to turn their faces to the West while offering their
prayers and the Christians faced the East; so this Ayat was sent down concerning their practise. Several other
Ulama have expressed the same opinion (Durre Manthur). Imaam Jassaas Rahmathullah alaihe has said that this
Ayaat was sent down to refute the objection of the Jews and the Christians against the change of ‘Qiblah’ i.e. from
Bait-ul-Muqaddas to Ka’bah. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala has, in this Ayat stressed the fact that virtue lies in
obedience to Allah Ta’ala, without which the turning to the East or West is meaningless (Ahlamul-Quran).
Spending for the cause of Allah means that, in all cases, money must be spent only to seek the pleasure and love
of Allah, and not for getting name and fame for one-self, in which case the spending will not count as an act of
virtue. It will rather become a sin instead of being a virtue.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that Haq Ta’ala Shanohu does not look at your faces and your
wealth (how much you spent). He rather, looks at your deeds and your hearts (the motives behind your deeds).
(Mishkaat). Another Hadith reports Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, “The thing I fear most for you
(the Ummah) is the minor ‘Shirk’. On being asked what the minor ‘Shirk’ was, he replied, “To do something for the
sake of show”. Repeated warnings have been given in the Ahadith against spending for the sake of displaying one’s
generosity.
The translation given indicated that spending of money should be motivated by love for Allah. Some Ulama have
interpreted the Ayat as follows:
Spending of money should be accompanied by a feeling of love for spending i.e. one should be delighted to give
away things as Sadaqah, should have no second thoughts, nor regret having spent money, nor fear from want, nor
blame oneself for spending it lavishly (Ahkamul Qur’an). Many other Ulama have given a different interpretation.
They say that the Ayaat refers to spending for the cause of Allah while one still needs and loves money. A Hadith
says that someone asked Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, “What is meant by spending money while one
loves it; for everybody loves money?” Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam replied, “It means that you should
spend money while you are conscious of your own needs, fear from want and neediness and feel afraid lest you
should need it at a time during the long years of your life lying ahead”.
Another Hadith says that the best Sadaqah is to spend at the time when you are in good health, hoping to live long.
Do not go on postponing Sadaqah till you find yourself on the death-bed, with little or no hope of survival, at which
juncture, you may begin to give away your wealth saying, ‘So much to so-and-so and so much for such and such
cause, though it now belongs to your heirs. (Durre Manthur). When the hope for life vanishes, feeling for personal
needs is no longer there and, with the apprehension of all the property going to your heirs, you begin to distribute it
among Masjids and Madrasahs!
So long as the feeling of one’s own neediness was uppermost, the will to give as Sadaqah was absent. Therefore
the ‘Shariah’ has ordered that such last-moment directions for giving things in Sadaqah or to non-heirs should be
limited to a maximum of one third of the total property. Thus if the total property has been given away at the time of
death, only one third of it can be validly disposed off according to such a ‘will’ of the deceased. The above Ayat
specifically emphasizes spending on the orphans and the destitute while Zakaat has been mentioned separately, at
the end of the Ayat.
This shows that spending on the things specified therein has to be done from the property left with a person after
payment of Zakaat. This point will be explained later under Hadith No. 1
3. Spend your wealth for the cause of Allah, and make not your hands contribute to your destruction; and do good.
Lo! Allah loves those who are beneficent. (al-baqarah: 195)
Note: According to Huzaifah Radhiallaho anho, the command “Do not contribute to your own destruction,” means
giving up Sadaqah for fear of becoming poor.
Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has said, “To get killed in the path of Allah, is not ruining oneself: in fact, ruination lies
in withholding the expenditure on sadaqah”. Dhahhaak Bin Jubair Rahmathullah alaihe has said that the Ansaar
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used to spend in the path of Allah and also give things in Sadaqah. Once, in a year of famine, they changed their
minds and stopped this noble practise.
On that occasion this Ayat was revealed. Aslam Rahmathullah alaihe has said that he was once of those who
participated in the battle of Constantinople. A large force of the enemy advanced to oppose them. A man from their
side rushed alone into the enemy lines. Upon this, some of the Muslims started shouting that the men had blindly
invited his ruination and they recited this particular Ayat in support of their contention.
Abu Ayyub Ansaari Radhiallaho anho, who was also in the field, got up and said that the action of that man was not
self-ruination at all; he said that the Ayat of the Qur’an being quoted by some people referred to the Ansaar.
He explained that Ansaar quietly took a decision among themselves that the time had come for them to engage
themselves in improving their lands and farms, etc; in the belief that, by the grace of Allah Ta’ala, Islam by then had
become predominant and many people besides the Ansaar had joined the ranks of its supporters and helpers and,
so the Ansaar could turn to their fields, plantations, etc, which were in ruin due to neglect and lack of care. At that
juncture, the Ayat in question was revealed in order to admonish them that it would be self-ruination if the Ansaar
gave up Jehaad for the sake of improving their properties. (Durre Manthur).
4. (People) ask you what they should spend (as Sadaqah). “Tell (them) what they can spare”. (i.e.) what is in
excess of their requirements). (al-baqarah: 219)
Note: Wealth is meant to be spent; whatever is left over, after meeting personal requirements, should be spent as
Sadaqah. Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has said that, after meeting the requirements of one’s family the balance
becomes ‘Afv’ which means that it is to be spent as Sadaqah. Abu Umamah Radhiallaho anho has reported
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, “O men, give what you can spare for charity, this is good for you; if
you hold it back, it will be bad for you. You are not to blame for keeping back just enough for your own
requirements; begin by spending on those who are dependant on you. The upper hand (which gives) is better than
the lower hand (which is stretched out for accepting alms)”.
Ataa Rahmathullah alaihe is quoted as having said that ‘Afv’ means wealth in excess of actual needs. (Durre
Manthur). Abu Sae’ed Khudri Radhiallaho anho has said that once Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said that
when a person has an extra conveyance he should give it to someone who has none, and whoever has provision in
excess should give the excess to those who do not have any. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said this so
emphatically that we thought no one would have any right over his own property in excess of his actual needs. (Abu
Dawood).
In fact the highest virtue lies only in giving away everything that is over and above one’s legitimate requirements;
nothing is to be hoarded. Certain Ulama have said that ‘Afv’ means “What is convenient”; one should spend as
Sadaqah what can be spared with convenience and ease, so that no hardship or distress is caused to oneself
afterwards. Also that no dependant should be deprived of his or her legitimate rights (which is a responsibility of the
spender), due to which the latter may get into trouble on the Day of Judgement.
It is narrated that Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho said, “Some people used to give so much Sadaqah that nothing
would be left with themselves, even for eating, and they would be compelled to look for Sadaqah from others. It was
for this reason that the above Ayat was revealed”.
Abu Sae’ed Khudri Radhiallaho anho has said that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, seeing the very poor
condition of a person just arrived in the Masjid, asked the people to give him clothes as Sadaqah.
Plenty of these were contributed , Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam gave two garments out of these to the poor
man. Later, once again Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam persuaded people to donate as Sadaqah. That poor
man also gave one garment out of the two, whereupon Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam showed his
displeasure and returned the piece to him. (Durre Manthur).
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The Glorious Qur’an does invite us to give in charity, in spite of our own requirements, but this is for such people
who can do it cheerfully, because the importance of ‘Akhirah’ prevails over worldly requirements in their minds. This
particular point is dealt with in detail under Ayat given at serial No. 28.
5. Who is it that will lend to Allah a goodly loan, so that He may give it increase manifold? (Do not fear poverty)
Allah straitens and enlarges (your provision), and to Him you will return. (al-baqarah: 245)
Note: The act of spending for the cause of Allah has been interpreted as advancing loan to Allah Ta’ala, which
means that, just as the return of a loan is obligatory, the recompense and reward for spending in charity is a
certainty.
That is why Sadaqah has been termed as loan. Umar Radhiallaho anho has stated that giving a loan to Allah Ta’ala
means spending in charity. Ibne Mas’ood Radhiallaho anho has said that, when the above Ayat was revealed, Abu
Dahda Ansaari Radhiallaho anho came to Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and submitted, “O Rasulullah,
does Allah Jalla Shanohu desire a loan from us?” Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam replied, “Certainly so” He
then said, “Please give me your hand” (for making a promise).
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam stretched out his hand towards him and Abu Dahdah Radhiallaho anho,
taking it in his own hand as a gesture of a vow, said that he was giving his garden to Allah Ta’ala as a loan. That
garden had six hundred date-palms and his wife and children were living in it.
Abu Dahdah Radhiallaho anho went to the garden, called his wife Umme Dahdah Radiyallaho anha and told her
that they had to leave the garden as it had been given away to their ‘Lord’ (Allah Ta’ala). Another Hadith by Abu
Hurairah Radhiallaho anho says that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam distributed that garden among some
orphans.
Still another Hadith says that when the sacred Ayat was revealed, saying: “Whoever earned a single virtue would
receive ten times the reward for it”, Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam made a dua, “O Allah! Compensate my
‘Ummah’ even more than that”. As a result this Ayat was revealed. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam again
implored Allah for a further increase.
Thereupon the Ayat which has been explained at serial No. 7 below, was revealed. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe
wasallam again made supplication saying, “O Allah, increase the reward of my Ummah” Thereupon the Ayat was
revealed “That whoever is steadfast will receive a full return, which will be boundless.” (az-Zumar: 19)
Another Hadith says that an angel calls out, “Whoever offers a loan today will receive a full compensation
tomorrow” Another Hadith says that Allah Jallah Shanohu proclaims, “O man, entrust your treasures to me for safe
custody; none of these will catch fire, nor sink, nor be stolen, you will receive these back from Me at the time when
your need for them will be the greatest”. (Durre manthur).
6. O you who believe! Spend, out of what We have provided for you before the Day comes when there would be no
bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession (without Allah’s permission). (al-baqarah: 254)
Note: It means that there shall be no selling or buying on that Day to enable you to buy virtues from others, nor
would there be any friend to intercede or entreat on your behalf. In short, all means of help from any source shall
cease. If anything is to be done for that Day, now is the time to do it and to sow the seed; that Day shall be the day
of harvest. Whatever is sown shall be reaped, whether it be grain or flower, thorn or firewood! It is a matter for all to
ponder and to examine what each one is sowing?
7. The likeness of those who spend their wealth in Allah’s way (for good deeds) is as the likeness of a grain which
grows seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wills. Allah is All-
Embracing, and All-Knowing (He knows the motive for which wealth is spent). (al-baqarah: 261)
Note: Ahadith say that there are six categories of deeds and four categories of men. The six types of deeds include
two that are obligatory and two bring equal compensation, the fifth one brings ten times reward and the sixth may
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bring seven hundred times reward in return. The obligatory two are that, if a person dies without committing any
‘Shirk’ he shall go to ‘Jannah’ and if he is guilty of ‘Shirk’ he shall land himself in ‘Jahannam’.
Those at equal compensation are; if a person intends to do a good deed but is unable to accomplish it, he shall
receive a single virtue as a reward for making the good intention. Similarly, if a person commits a sin, his
punishment shall correspond to a single sin. When a person actually accomplishes a single good deed, his reward
shall be tenfold, whereas, if he spends for the cause of Allah, his return shall be seven hundred times the value of
the wealth spent.
The four categories of men referred to are as follows:
1. The one who receives ample provisions in this life as well as in the ‘Akhirah’.
2. The one prosperous in this life but poor and miserable in the ‘Akhirah’.
3. The one who suffers hardships in this life but shall flourish in the ‘Akihirah’.
4. The one who is miserable in this life as well as in the ‘Akirah’ (Kanzul Ummal).
His misery is due to poverty, and his bad deeds lead him to suffering in the ‘Akhirah’, so that both his lives are
ruined. Abu Hurairah Radhiallaho anho reports Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying that whoever gives
in charity the equivalent to a date that is part of lawful possession and not unlawful, Allah nourishes that date as you
nourish colt, to such an extent that your provision grows up to the dimensions of a mountain. Haq Ta’ala Shanohu
accepts only pure and flawless things. Allah Ta’ala increases the reward of this simple virtue to a size larger than
that of mount Uhad, which is the highest mountain near Madina.
This indicates that the reward for a single virtue would grow far beyond the seven hundred times limit mentioned
above. Another hadith says that when the Ayat regarding the seven hundred times reward was revealed, Rasulullah
Sallallaho alaihe wasallam made a dua for a further increase of the reward, upon which the Ayat given at No. 5 was
revealed. (Bayan-al-Quran). This means that this particular Ayat was sent down earlier than the one given at No. 5.
The subject of another Hadith is contrary to the discussion given under Ayat No. 5.
8. Those who spend their wealth for the cause of Allah and afterwards make no reproach or injury (in any way) to
follow that which they have spent, their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them, neither
shall they grieve. (On the Day of Judgement). (al-Baqarah: 262)
Note: this great Ayat follows the previous one, and the whole section (Ruku) deals with the same subject. It
encourages us to spend for the cause of Allah and warns against boasting of the favour done or teasing the
beneficiary with taunts and insults, which means treating him with contempt, or to look down upon him.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that certain people shall not enter ‘Jannah’. These include one who
boasts of his generosity after spending for the cause of Allah, the other who is disobedient to his parents and the
third who is a habitual drunkard, etc. (Durre Manthur). Imaam Ghazali Rahmatullah alaihe has written in the ‘Ihya’
about the etiquettes of Sadaqah that it must not be destroyed by ‘Mann’ (reproach) and ‘Azaa’ (injury).
Some Ulama have explained ‘Mann’ as boasting about it to the person to whom the Sadaqah has been given and
‘Azaa’ as talking about it to others. Other Ulama have said that ‘Mann’ is to demand free labour in return for
Sadaqah and ‘Azaa’ is taunting the beneficiary for begging. Some others have said that ‘Mann’ is to show a feeling
of superiority over the receiver of alms, and ‘Azaa’ is to rebuke the poor for begging. Imaam Ghazali Rahmatullah
alaihe has said that ‘Mann’ is as follows:
Having spent the money on the poor man, one would be conscious of it as a favour shown to him. This very thought
becomes the source of all the evils mentioned above. In reality it is the poor who does favour to the rich, as their
acceptance of Sadaqah absolves the rich of their obligation to Allah Ta’ala and also because the poor become a
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source of purification of the rich man’s wealth, besides saving him from the fire of ‘Jahannam’ to which he was
destined, if the Zakaat had remained unpaid. (Ihya).
The famous Mohaddith Imaam Sha’abi Rahmatullah alaihe has said that unless a rich person considers himself
more in need of reward from Allah for his Sadaqah than he thinks the poor person to be in need of his Sadaqah, he
has wasted his alms, which would be thrown back on him. (Ihya-ul-Uloom). The Day of Judgement shall be a day of
great severity, sorrow and terror, as would be explained at the end of this book. To be safe from these calamities on
that day would be a great privilege.
9. If ye publish your almsgiving, it is well, but if ye hide it and give it to the poor, it will be better for you, and will
atone for some of your ill-deeds. Allah is informed of what you do. (al-Baqarah: 271)
Those who spend their wealth by night and day, by stealth and openly, verily their reward is with their Lord, and
there shall no fear come upon neither shall they grieve. (al-Baqarah: 274)
Note: In both the above Ayaat, the giving of Sadaqah either publicly or privately has been praised while, in many
Ayaat of the Qur’an and also in several Ahadith, an act committed for show or hypocritically has been termed as a
vice or ‘Shirk’; in fact it nullifies the reward and turns the act into a sin.
However, it should first be understood that ‘show’ has another sense as well. It may not necessarily mean that
every good deed done in public would amount to ‘show’. Actually ‘show’ means that an act is done to display one’s
own greatness or for the sake of publicity or honour or for being called generous.
A deed done purely for seeking the good-will and pleasure of Allah Ta’ala, even publicly, for some good cause
would thus not be ‘show’ at all. Still the best form of every act of charity, presumably, is that done in secret, so as to
eliminate all doubts of show and publicity.
Also it will prevent the poor from feeling humiliated. Even though an open deed may not be for show, the inevitable
fame may lead to self-conceit and pride for being generous. It may also result in harassment, as a large number of
people may start seeking his favour.
His fame for being wealthy may bring him to harm. He may have to pay taxes, his riches may tempt the thieves and
breed ill-will in the heart of the jealous. Imaam Ghazali Rahmatullah alaihe has said that one keeps away from
publicity and hypocrisy when alms are given in secret.
It has also been related that. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said: “The best charity is that given by a person
who is himself pressed for money and who gives Sadaqah to a needy person quietly out of his own earnings; and
whoever talks about his charity is a seeker of publicity; and the one who gives alms in public is a hypocrite. In olden
days, the truly pious tried their utmost to remain unknown to the poor who received help from them.
Some of them chose blind persons as recipients of their charity. Some would slip money into the pocket of a
sleeping person, some would give through others, so as to remain anonymous and save the poor from humiliation.
However, Sadaqah given for self-publicity means destroying a good deed, and getting a sin. Imaam Ghazali
Rahmatullah alaihe has written, “Where publicity is the aim, the deed becomes useless”, the reason being that
obligatory Zakaat has been ordered to reduce the love of wealth.
Usually the love for status is stronger than the love for wealth. Both will be the cause of ruination in the ‘Akhirah’.
Miserliness will appear in the grave as a huge scorpion, while love of status and hypocrisy will assail the dead man
in the form of a python” (Ihya-ul-Uloom). According to a Hadith, it is enough for one’s condemnation if people point
him out for worldly or religiously fame.
Ibrahim Bin Adham Rahmatullah alaihe has said that when a person takes pleasure in self-publicity, his dealings
with Allah are not sincere. Ayoob Sakhtiani Rahmatullah alaihe has said that a person true to Allah would prefer to
keep the whereabouts of his residence unknown to people. (Ihya-ul-Uloom).
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Once Umar Radhiallaho anho came to the Masjid-Nabavi and found Ma’az Radhiallaho anho sitting and crying by
the grave of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam. He enquired why he was crying. Ma’az Radhiallaho anho replied
that he had heard Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam saying that the smallest hypocrisy amounts to ‘Shirk’ and
Allah loves those pious people who live in unknown corners so that no one looks for them when they have left a
place and if they are in a crowd no one recognises them; their hearts are the torches of guidance and they keep
away from all dark and dirty spots. (Ihya-ul-Uloom).
Although many Ayat of the Qur’an and many Ahadith are there to condemn show and hypocrisy, nevertheless,
sometimes an open deed becomes a religious necessity. As for example, Sadaqah from a small number of persons
may not be enough to meet an important religious requirement; in which case, the difficulty could be solved through
encouraging others by raising funds through open charity. For this very purpose, Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe
wasallam has said that a man reciting the Qur’an aloud is like one giving Sadaqah in public, while reading it in low
tone is like giving Sadaqah quietly. (Mishkaat). Hence, the best mode of reading the Qur’an depends on
expediency, sometimes it may be better to read aloud and at another time in a low tone.
Many Ulama have been quoted as saying that the first of the two Ayaat mentioned above refers to obligatory charity
(Zakaat) as well as the optional one (Nafl) Sadaqah. The best way to give Zakaat is to give it publicly, as is the
requirement about all obligatory performances. This is for the purpose of encouraging others to fulfil the Divinely
ordained obligations and also for the sake of absolving oneself from the possible blame of neglecting the payment
of Zakaat. For the same reason Salaat is to be performed publicly in congregation (Jama’at).
Hafiz Ibne Hajar Rahmatullah alaihe has said that Allama Tabari Rahmatullah alaihe and others have quoted a
unanimous opinion of the Ulama that the obligatory Sadaqah (Zakaat) is better given openly and the ‘Nafl’ Sadaqah
is better when given secretly. Zain Ibnul Munir Rahmatullah alaihe has said that it all depends on circumstances: if
the ruler is known to be unjust, and property is kept concealed, giving Zakaat is better kept secret.
In the same way, if a person is being followed, any type of charity given by him openly will be beneficial. (Fathul
Bari). Ibn Abbas Radhiallaho anho, in his explanation of the above mentioned Ayaat, has said that Allah Ta’ala
makes the reward for Nafl Sadaqah given secretly to excel seventy times the reward for open Sadaqah.
The reward for ‘Fardh’ (obligatory) Sadaqah given openly however excels twenty five times the reward for Sadaqah
given secretly. Similarly, the same rule applies to all other deeds of worship, obligatory or optional. (Durre Manthur).
It implies that amongst all deeds, the performance of Obligatory one’s is best if done in public rather than in secret,
because doing them secretly may bring the person concerned under false accusations, of neglecting the relevant
Ibadat (worship) and secondly, if such an accusation comes from persons connected with him, the value and
importance of that Ibadat may leave their hearts.
Open performance is preferred even in Nafl Ibadat, if others are thereby likely to follow the example. Ibne Umar
Radhiallaho anho has reported Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying that a virtuous deed done secretly
is better than the one done openly, except when the latter is meant as a persuasion for others. Abu Umamah
Radhiallaho anho has said that when Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho asked Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as to
which type of Sadaqah was best, the reply was, “Giving something quietly to the poor”. To make effort to help
another, in spite of ones own helplessness, is, however, better.
The superiority of giving ‘Nafl’ Sadaqah secretly is the basic rule; if a religious exigency be in mind, giving it publicly
becomes better, but in the event the man should not be heedless in allowing the baser self (Nafs) and Shaitan to
convince him that there is an exigency in giving openly, and thus ruin his Sadaqah. He should rather determine
carefully if there is really an exigency in giving openly. Above all, he should avoid mentioning the Sadaqah given by
him, because that too, would be tantamount to giving openly.
One Hadith says that a person performs a good deed secretly and it is recorded as such; later when he talks about
it to someone, it is changed from secret deed to an open one, and if he keeps mentioning it to people, the same is
recorded as an act of hypocrisy. (Ihya-ul-Uloom).
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that seven persons shall enjoy the shade of Allah Jalla Shanohu
when there will be no other shade on the Day of Judgement:
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(i) A just ruler
(ii) A young person who is nurtured in ‘Ibadat’ of Allah Ta’ala;
(iii) A person whose heart is attached to the Masjid;
(iv) Two persons who love each other for the pleasure of Allah; without any worldly motive, and they meet and
separate in that spirit;
(v) A man who due to fear of Allah, refuses to go near a respectable beautiful woman, sexually inclined towards
him, as also a woman who in a similar situation refuses to meet a man;
(vi) A person who gives Sadaqah so secretly that his left hand does not know what the right hand gives away;
(vii) A person who cries when remembering Allah in solitude.
This particular Hadith mentions only seven persons; according to an other Hadith some other people, besides
these, will enjoy the shade of the ‘Arsh’ (Allah Ta’ala’s throne) on that severe Day. The Ulama have counted them
as eighty two categories, which have been recounted by the writer of ‘It-haaf’.
Many Ahadith relate Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, ‘Concealed Sadaqah causes the wrath of
Allah to wane”. Saalim Ibne Abil Ja’ad Rahmatullah alaihe has said that a woman was travelling alone with her
infant son when a wolf snatched it away from her hands. The woman was running after the wolf when a beggar
approached her and asked for something.
She had only a single loaf of bread, which she gave away to the beggar. Thereafter, the wolf returned and left the
baby with his mother. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that three persons are loved by Allah and He
is displeased with three. Those whom He loves are: the first is a person in a crowd of people who, when a man
approaches and begs for something from them (among whom none is related to the beggar), moves away from the
crowd and gives the beggar something of which only Allah Ta’ala is aware; the second is a person who is travelling
with a group at night and when sleep overtakes them and they call a halt, leave their conveyances and go to sleep,
he stands up instead of sleeping and offers his Salaat with full humility; the third is the person who, when engaged
in a battle against the Kaafirs, holds his ground bravely till he is killed (meets Shahadat) or is victorious, while his
companions turn their back due to heavy pressure of the enemy.
The three with whom Allah Ta’ala is displeased are; first, a person who indulges in adultery even in his old age;
second who is a beggar, and still arrogant; and third, a rich man who is cruel. This very Hadith is recorded at Serial
No. 15. One of the Hadith quoted by Jabir Radhiallaho anho says that once Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam
gave a sermon saying, “O people repent of your misdeeds before death overtakes you; be quick in seizing the
opportunity of doing a good deed lest you should lose the chance by getting busy in something else; try to attain
nearness to Allah Ta’ala by means of ‘Zikr’ and by Sadaqah given openly as well as secretly; because due to this,
you will receive your livelihood, Allah’s help and remedy for discomfiture”.
Another Hadith says that, on the Day of Judgement, every one will be under the shade of one’s Sadaqah, i.e. when
the sun will be very close overhead, on the day of ‘Qiamah’ every person will be provided shade overhead
according to the amount of his Sadaqah till the reckoning is finished.
The larger the Sadaqah, the larger will be the shade. Another Hadith says that Sadaqah cools the heat of the grave
and every person will get a shade from his Sadaqah, on the Day of Judgement. Many Ahadith have mentioned the
point that Sadaqah drives away many afflictions. Due to their own misdeeds, the Muslims today are afflicted with
perils all over the world. Obviously, the remedy lies in giving more Sadaqah.
In the prevailing conditions when one is likely to lose one’s property, all of a sudden, the best way to protect it is to
give maximum Sadaqah. That part will be certainly saved and its blessing will drive away the coming misfortunes.
But alas! In spite of seeing these conditions with our own eyes, we do not seem to give charity to the extent that the
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time demands. Another Hadith says, “Sadaqah closes seventy doors towards evil”, while still another one says that
Sadaqah removes Allah Ta’ala’s anger and saves the giver from a bad death. According to another Hadith,
“Sadaqah increases the span of a man’s life and cures him of conceit and arrogance”.
Yet another Hadith relates that Allah Ta’ala, in return for giving a morsel of bread or a handful of dates, or anything
else that may satisfy a poor man’s need, shall grant entry into Jannah to three persons: (a) The owner of the house
who ordered the Sadaqah (b) The house-wife who cooked the bread, etc. (c) The servant who took it to the needy
person. After saying this much, Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam remarked, “All praises are for Allah who has
not forgotten even our servants while giving His rewards”.
Once Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam asked the Sahabah, “Who is the strongest of men?” They replied, “The
one who gets the better of his opponent in a contest”. He said, “The strongest man is he who can control himself
when he is angry” He then asked, “Who is a barren person?” They replied, “The one who is incapable of bearing
offspring.” Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “No, it is the one who has not sent a child ahead of him to the
Hereafter”. “He then asked, “Who is a destitute person?” They replied, “The one who has no property”.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “The destitute person, and the utterly destitute, is he who possessed
property but did not send anything ahead of him” (for the Day when his needs would be the greatest but he would
be empty-handed).
Abu Hurairah Radhiallaho anho narrates that once Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “Aishah! Bargain
your amnesty from Allah Ta’ala, even though it may be with a piece of a date; for I shall not be able to help you
against any demand from Allah Ta’ala; O Aishah, let not a beggar go away from you empty-handed; give him
something; even if it be a goat’s hoof”. (Durre Manthur)
Imaam Ghazali Rahmatullah alaihe says that, in the early days of Islam, people used to consider it a bad day if no
charity had been given during it, and they gave alms every day, even though it was a date or a piece of bread. For,
they kept the Hadith of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam in view, which says, “Everybody will be under the
shade of his Sadaqah, on the Day of Resurrection”. (Ihya)
10. Allah has blighted usury and made alms-giving fruitful. (al Baqarah: 276)
Note: We have already quoted many traditions about the fruitfulness of Sadaqah; these Ahadith say that the reward
for Sadaqah goes on increasing till it becomes as big as a mountain.
Those rewards will accrue in the Akhirah, but even in this life the Sadaqah causes one’s income to grow. If a man
gives away charities, sincerely and plentifully, his income goes on increasing. Let anyone try it, but sincerity is the
condition; there must be no inkling of self-display or pride in spending. As regards usury, it is bound to be a bad
bargain in the Akhirah, while here, too, usury brings ruination.
Abdullah bin Mas’ood Radhiallaho anho narrates that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam once said, “Even
though usury may look productive, it leads to want and poverty in the end”. Similarly Ma’mar Rahmatullah alaihe
says that usury tends to decrease one’s wealth in forty years.
Hazrat Dhahaak Radhiallaho anho says that although usury increases in this world, it shall certainly lead to ruin in
the Hereafter. Abu Barzah Radhiallaho anho narrates that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “A man just
gives a piece in charity and Allah Ta’ala grants it increase till it grows large in size like Mount Uhad”.
11. (O Muslims!) You will not attain unto piety until you spend of that which you love. (Ale-Imran-92)
Note: Anas Radhiallaho anho has said that among the Ansaars Abu Talhah Radhiallaho anho possessed the
largest number of date palms. He had a garden called Beerhaa which he liked most. It was situated just in front of
Masjid Nabavi and Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam used to visit it often and drink from the sweet water it
contained. When the above mentioned Ayat was revealed, Abu Talhah Radhiallaho anho came to Rasulullah
Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and said, “Allah Jalla Shanohu has said:
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“You will never attain piety unless you spend of that which you love”. Among all my possessions I love the Beerhaa
garden most; so I give it in Sadaqah for Allah’s sake, hoping to receive rewards and blessings from Allah; O
Rasulullah, “You can spend it as you desire”. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “Well done! It is a very
profitable property. I deem it appropriate that you should distribute it amongst your relatives”.
Abu Talhah Radhiallaho anho agreed and gave the garden away to his cousins and other relatives. Another Hadith
says that Abu Talhah submitted, “O Rasulullah, my garden which is most valuable has been given away in charity
and, if I could I would not let anyone know my Sadaqah, but secrecy is not possible in giving away a garden”. Ibne
Umar Radhiallaho anho says that, when he learnt about this Ayat, he considered all his possessions which Allah
Ta’ala had given him, to decide which one was the dearest to him. He saw that his slave-girl Marjanah was the
dearest to him.
So he set her free. He further said that if he wanted to benefit the second time from her, he could have taken her as
his wife after her freedom, which was permissible and there would have been no reduction in the reward for the
Sadaqah. But, in that case it would have looked like getting back what had been given away as Sadaqah, so he
gave her in marriage to his slave, Nafay. In another Hadith it is said that Ibne Umar Radhiallaho anho while praying
happened to recite the above Ayat and, while he was in the Salaat, set free one of his slave-girls by a gesture.
The noble Sahabah Radhiallaho anhum had a perfect understanding of the importance of the sacred commands of
Haq Ta’ala Shanohu and His revered Rasul Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and took an exemplary initiative in
obedience to the orders given. They, in this regard, deserve to be followed. Indeed, they were the type who really
deserved to be the companions (Sahabah) of Muhammad Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and his befitting servants and
followers.
Umar Radhiallaho anho wrote to Abu Moosa Ash’ari Radhiallaho anho to purchase for him a slave-girl from among
those who came from Jaloola. The latter purchased one of the best and sent her to Umar Radhiallaho anho, who
beckoned her and recited the above Ayat and set her free. Muhammad Ibne Munkadir Radhiallaho anho has said
that when this glorious Ayat was revealed, Zaid Ibne Harithah Radhiallaho anho had a horse which was the dearest
thing to him. He took the horse to Muhammad Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, and submitted that it was for charity.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam accepted the horse and gave it away to Zaid’s own son Usamah Radhiallaho
anho. Zaid Radhiallaho anho was somewhat uneasy over the decision, thinking that the horse thus came back to
the family, but Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam explained and said, “Your Sadaqah has been accepted by
Allah Jalla Shanohu, which means that it has been well paid. Having received the horse for charity, it then depends
on me to give it to your son or any one else, a relative or a stranger: You did not give it to your son, which might
have reflected as self-interest but you gave it to me to do what I liked.”
A certain person from the tribe of Bani Sulaim narrated that Abu Zarr Ghifari Radhiallaho anho resided in the village
of Rabza, where he had his camels and an old man to look after them. A tribesman (of Bani Sulaim) lived in the
neighbourhood.
He came to Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho and requested permission to live with him and offered himself for the help of
the old man, so as to derive moral benefit by being close to Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho and receive the blessings of
Allah Ta’ala through his company. Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho replied that only a person who would comply with his
orders could live as his companion.
If the tribesman was fully prepared for that condition, he had no objection to his stay. The man asked, “What are
those matters in which you demand obedience.” Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho said, “Whenever I order you to bring
something to be given away, you must choose the best of the available things.” The man agreed to do so and
remained with Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho for a period of time.
Once Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho learnt that some people living across the water course were badly off. He wanted
to help them, so he ordered the tribesman to bring a camel from his herd. The man went and looked for the best
one, and found a he-camel strong and well trained, which he thought of taking to Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho but it
occurred to him that this was a fit animal for breeding, so he left it out and chose the next best, which was a she-
camel, and took it to Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho.
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By chance, Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho saw the he-camel which the man had selected first. So, Abu Zarr told the
man that he had committed a breach of trust. The man understood the position and replaced the she-camel with the
he-camel. Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho then asked the people around if two of them would volunteer to do a good
deed for him. Two men came forward, Abu Zarr asked them if they would slaughter the camel and divide its meat
into as many pieces as the number of houses along side the water course and deliver a piece to each house.
He also told them to count his own house amongst those and deliver a piece there of exactly the same size as that
for others. The two men agreed to do the needful and accomplished the whole task.
Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho then called the tribesman and asked him if he had forgotten the promise, which he had
made before and told him that in that event, he had an excuse, or otherwise he had intentionally overlooked that
undertaking.
The man replied that he had not forgotten it and explained that when he looked round the herd and found the he-
camel to be the best in the whole lot; he thought that this animal met Abu Zarr’s needs and requirements. Abu Zarr
Radhiallaho anho enquired, “Did you really leave it for the sake of my needs?” The man replied in the affirmative,
whereupon Abu Zarr Radhiallaho anho said, “Shall I tell you the time of my real need? It shall be the time when I
will be placed in the grave and that would be the time of my utter helplessness and need! There are three partners
in your property.
One is fate, which does not wait for anything but would take away your property, good or bad (I may think of a
certain thing to be good and useful for a particular occasion and keep it for that, but without knowing whether it
would be available at that particular time). In that case why should I not deposit and reserve it now for the Akhirah,
in the treasure of Allah Ta’ala.
The other partner is your heir, who is always waiting for the occasion when you would land in your grave and he
would receive all your property. The third partner is you yourself, (i.e. you can use it for yourself); therefore try and
make sure that you are not the least recipient of all. Let it not happen that fate snatches it away and renders it
useless or the heir rushes to own it; the best of all would be to hurry up and deposit it in the treasury of Allah Ta’ala
Shanohu. Besides this, Allah Ta’ala has said: “You will not attain unto piety until you spend of that which you love”
Therefore that camel which was very dear to me, why should I not reserve it for myself and send it ahead of me for
safe custody?”
Another Hadith relates that Ibne Umar Radhiallaho anho used to buy sugar and distribute it among the poor. His
servant once submitted that it would be better if bread were given to the poor instead of sugar, as they would
benefit more from it. He agreed with the suggestion but said that Haq Ta’ala Shanohu has said: “You will not attain
unto piety until you spend of that which you love” Since, he himself loved sugar most, he gave the same to the poor
(Durre Manthur). The Sahabah, even if they considered some action desirable, always preferred to act literally,
according to the command of Allah Ta’ala Shanohu and His revered Rasul Sallallaho alaihe wasallam.
There are many examples of this, in the Ahadith, indicating the height of love in doing something exactly according
to the words of their loved one, even when there is an alternative apparently more appropriate.
12. And vie one with another for forgiveness from your Lord, and for Jannah as wide as are the heavens and the
earth, prepared for the righteous. Those who spend (of that which Allah hath given them) whether in prosperity or
adversity, those who restrain their anger and are forgiving towards mankind: Allah loves those who do good. (Aale-
Imran: 133-134)
Note: The Ulama have stated that certain Sahabah envied Banu Israel for an occurrence among them that,
whenever a person committed a sin, he found it written on his door along with it’s atonement, also indicating the
way it was to be carried out e.g. by cutting off the nose or the ear, etc.
The Sahabah Radhiallaho anhum envied them for the fact that the forgiveness of the sin (after the atonement), was
certain, as they viewed the gravity of any sin so seriously that punishment for it here was considered not only light
but enviable, compared to the punishment in the Akhirah. The incidents quoted in the books of Hadith regarding the
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Sahabah Radhiallaho anhum clearly show that, when any one of them (out of human weakness) committed a sin,
he would be overwhelmed by fear of its punishment.
Not only men, even the women felt the same way. Once a woman committed adultery and presented herself before
Muhammad Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, confessed her sin and asked for its atonement, which was death by
stoning; and that punishment was ultimately carried out. Why so? Because, the fear of future retribution for the sin
committed was far greater than the fear of death.
It is said about Abu Talha Radhiallaho anho that once a thought of his garden disturbed his devotion in Salaat, so
he gave away the garden in Sadaqah for the sake of Allah, and felt happy thereafter. His sense of values could not
tolerate that the thought of a material thing should interrupt him during his prayers. Anything disturbing his mind
during Salaat was not worth keeping.
Another Ansaari Radhiallaho anho had a similar experience. His date-palms were in full bloom. He thought of them
in his Salaat: how finely the dates had ripened! Realising his mistake, he appeared before Uthman Radhiallaho
anho who was then the Khalifah and related the story of his date-palm garden and offered the garden to be given
away in Sadaqah. It was accepted by the Khalifah and sold for fifty thousand Dirhams. The money was spent on
religious needs. Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho once, by mistake ate a doubtful morsel of food, which he wanted to
vomit out; so he went on drinking water and vomiting till the morsel came out. He did this for fear of allowing a bit of
doubtful food to become a part of his flesh.
Numerous incidents of the Sahabah have been narrated in the author’s booklet, “The Stories of Sahabah”. With
such people, it was not surprising to be envious of Banu Israel who were informed of their sins and the atonement in
order to have their sins cleared in this life. Alas! Today we, on our part, are so weak in this respect that it does not
even cross our minds how serious are the consequences. Allah Ta’ala, by His grace and benevolence, for His
increasing favours and rewards especially meant for the Ummah of His beloved Rasul Sallallaho alaihe wasallam
revealed the above Ayat saying, “Hasten towards such good deeds whereby the forgiveness of Allah shall be
readily forthcoming!” Sa’eed Ibne Jubair Radhiallaho anho in his explanation of this Ayat says that one must hasten,
with ones good deeds, towards the forgiveness of Allah Ta’ala and for Jannah, the expanse of which is equal to the
seven heavens joined together like a single sheet of cloth stitched out of several pieces and the seven earths also
similarly joined with them.
Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has also been quoted to say that the seven heavens and seven earths joined
together as one, make up the width of Jannah. Kuraib Rahmatullah alaihe, a slave of Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho
has said that he was sent by his master to a scholar of Taurah to ask him about the expanse of Jannah, as given in
their Scripture. He took out the Scriptures of Moosa Alaihissalam, studied them, and said that the width of Jannah
was as much as the seven heavens and seven earths all joined together as one.
Its length was only known to Allah! Anas Radhiallaho anho says that at the battle of Badr, Rasulullah Sallallaho
alaihe wasallam said,
“O people! Advance towards the Jannah which is as wide as all the heavens and earths put together”.
Umair Ibne Hamam Radhiallaho anho said in astonishment, “O Rasulullah! Is the Jannah so large!” Muhammad
Sallallaho alaihe wasallam replied, “Yes, indeed.” Um’air Radhiallaho anho applauded it and said, “O Rasulullah! I
swear by Allah, I shall be one of those who will go to Jannah.”
“Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam remarked, “Yes! Yes! You are one of those who will go to Jannah”. After
that, Umair Radhiallaho anho took out some dates from his saddle bag and started eating them (for gaining some
strength to fight). But he soon started up, saying, “To eat these dates to the finish would mean too long a wait!” He
threw the dates away and rushed into the battle-field and fought till he was killed (martyred). (Durre Manthur).
The above Ayat commends the Momineen (believers) for their virtue of controlling their wrath and forgiving fellow
human beings. These are superb qualities indeed! The Ulama have written that, if and when your brother (Muslim)
commits a blunder, you should think of seventy excuses for his making that mistake, and convince yourself of the
weight of those excuses.
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If you are still not convinced, do not blame him but yourself, for being hard-hearted and unjust, and say to yourself,
“Your brother had seventy reasons for the mistake that he had made but you did not accept any one of them”. And
if your brother himself presents any excuse, accept it.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that one of the qualities of a Momin is that if he gets angry, he soon
gets rid of his anger. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam did not say that one should not get angry but that the
anger must disappear soon. Imaam Shafa’i Rahmatullah alaihe has said that a person who does not show anger
when provoked is like an ass, while one is like Shaitan if his anger is not pacified when he is approached.
That is why Allah Ta’ala Shanohu has said, “Those who control their wrath”, and not those who do not get angry.
(Ihya). Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that when a person is capable of satisfying his anger but,
instead, subdues it, Allah Ta’ala grants him peace of mind and ‘Imaan’. (Durre Manthur). Patience in the state of
helplessness is common, virtue lies in showing patience when in authority. One Hadith says that nothing which is
swallowed is more valuable to Allah Ta’ala than the anger swallowed by a man; and Allah Ta’ala Shanohu fills such
a person with Imaan. Another Hadith says that when a person suppresses his anger although he is in power, he will
be called forward on the Day of Judgement and, in the presence of all, told to select a Houri for himself.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that a truly brave person is not one who throws someone on his
back but he who overpowers his own wrath. A slave-girl of Ali Rahmathullah alaihe Ibne Imaam Hussain
Radhiallaho anho, when helping him to perform wudhu, dropped the water-pot injuring his face. When Ali looked at
her angrily, she said, Allah Ta’ala has stated:
“And those who control their anger”
Ali Rahmathullah alaihe thereupon suppressed his anger, on which she recited,
“And are forgiving towards mankind.”
He said to her, “May Allah Ta’ala forgive you.” She then recited:
“Allah loves the Charitable.”
Thereupon he said, “You are a free woman.” Once a slave of Ali Rahmathullah alaihe, while carrying a bowl full of
hot meat for a guest, accidentally dropped the bowl on the head of Ali’s son and the child died. Ali Rahmathullah
alaihe told the slave that he was a free man and could go away, while he himself got busy with the burial of his
infant son. (Raudh).
13. They only are the (true) believers whose hearts are full of fear when Allah is mentioned and when Ayaat are
recited unto them they increase their faith, and who trust in their Lord. Who establish regular Salaat and spend of
that we have bestowed on them. Such are the true believers; for them are positions of honour with their Lord, and
pardon and a beautiful provision. (al-Anfaal: 2-4)
Note: Abu Darda Radhiallaho anho has said that an awe-stricken heart is like the dry leafage of date-palm catching
fire! Then he addresses his pupil Shahr Ibne Haushah, and asked him if he understood shivering of the body. The
pupil replied that he did. Abu Darda Radhiallaho anho then said that such was the time to make Du’aa which would
be accepted.
Thabit Banani Rahmatullah alaihe has related that a pious man once said that he could tell which Du’aa of his was
accepted and which one was rejected. People enquired as to how that was. He explained that when his body
shivered, his heart was filled with awe and his eyes shed tears, that was the moment when Dua’a was accepted.
Suddi Rahmatullah alaihe has said, ‘In the above Ayat the meaning of ‘when Allah is mentioned’ is to tell a person,
‘Fear Allah’ at the time when he is bent upon inflicting cruelty on someone or is about to indulge in a sin; his heart
should then be filled with fear of Allah!” Harith ibne Malik Ansaari Radhiallaho anho, a Sahabi, was in the company
of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam who asked him, “How are you?” He replied, “O Rasulullah, I have become
a true Momin”.
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Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “Be careful of what you say; there is a basis for everything; what is the
proof of your Imaan?” (i.e. what has made you say that you have become a true Mo’min). He submitted, “I have
detached myself from worldly life by keeping awake at night and fasting during the day; the scene of Jannah with
happy people meeting each other remains always before my eyes, as well as the cries and uproar of the dwellers in
Jahannam”. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “Indeed, Harith! You have turned away from worldly life,
hold fast to this state”, and repeated this three times. (Durre Manthur)
It is obvious that a person who keeps in view the scenes of Jannah and Jahannam, all the time, could never get
entangled in the worldly life.
14. All that you give for the cause of Allah shall be repaid fully to you; and you shall not be wronged. (al-Anfal: 60)
Note: The Ayaat and Ahadith, regarding increasing rewards for virtues, may not be taken to contradict this Ayat. It
simply says that there will be no diminution of the good deeds done. The rate of reward shall depend on what the
occasion demands or on the intention of the person spending and on the general conditions at the time of doing the
act. The increase shall be to any extent in the Akhirah, whereas, often a full return is given in this life, as
corroborated by other Ayat and Ahadith. This particular point would be amplified under the Ayaat quoted at serial
No. 20 and under the Ahadith given at serial No. 8
15. Tell my servants, those who are (true) believers to be steadfast in Salaat and to spend out of that which we
provided for them in private and in public, before that day arrives when all trading shall cease and friendship be no
more. (Ibrahim: 31)
Note: The propriety of giving Sadaqah in private or in public should be judged in accordance with the conditions at
the time of giving it. Both ways are necessary, depending on the circumstances prevailing at that time.
It may also mean that obligatory charity is better given publicly, and optional charity is preferably given privately, as
has been explained under the Ayat given at Serial No. 9. Establishing Salaat has been discussed in the very first
Ayat. Jabir Radhiallaho anho says that once Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam delivered a sermon in which he
said, “O people! Repent and take a vow to sin no more, before the hour of death, and do good deeds (lest you may
not have a chance to do so due to your many occupations); and strengthen the connection between your Lord and
yourself by His remembrance in abundance and by giving much in charity, both quietly and openly, because of that
you will receive your livelihood, the Divine help and the dispelling of your adversity.”
16. And give good news to the humble, whose hearts are filled with awe at the mention of Allah; who endure their
misfortune with fortitude, establish Salaat and spend in charity of that which We have given them. (al-Hajj:34-35)
Note: ‘Mukhbiteen’ has been translated as ‘those who are humble’. The Ulama have expressed several views about
the meaning of this word. The literal meaning is those who prefer lowliness. Some Ulama have translated it to
mean, ‘those who submit and bow their heads before the Commands of Allah’. Some have said it means the people
who always show humility and keep their heads down for that reason.
Mujahid Rahmathullah alaihe has translated it to mean those who have contentment. Amr Ibne Aas Radhiallaho
anho has said that ‘Mukhbiteen’ are those who do not oppress anyone nor do they retaliate when others oppress
them. Dhahhak Rahmathullah alaihe says that ‘Mukhbiteen’ are simply the humble ones. Abdullah Ibne Mas’ood
has been reported to have said that whenever he saw Rab’ee Ibne Khaitham Radhiallaho anho he thought of
‘Mukhbiteen’.
17. And those who give that which they give with hearts full of fear because they are about to return unto their Lord.
They race for the good things, and they shall win them in the race. (al-Momenun: 60-61)
Note: Despite their spending in the path of Allah, they are always afraid of the fate of their charity: whether it will be
accepted or not. It is due to the infinite Greatness and Sublimity of Allah Ta’ala Shanohu that the more one
advances spiritually, the more he is overwhelmed by His awe and fear.
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Particularly the person who is generally awed by the Greatness of Allah Ta’ala, is always afraid for his sincerity of
intention in spending, as ‘Nafs’ and ‘Shaitan’ often deceive a person about his deed being a virtue, although actually
it is not a virtue. As has been said in the last Ruku of Surah Kahf:
Say: Shall We inform you who will be the greatest losers by their works? Those whose effort goes astray in the life
of the world, and yet they reckon that they do good work. (al-Kahf: 103 – 104)
Hasan Basri Rahmathullah alaihe says that a Momin remains apprehensive even after doing virtuous deeds,
whereas a hypocrite becomes fearless after committing sins.
A number of instances have been mentioned in ‘Fazail-e-Hajj’ of the people whose hearts are so awed by the
Grandeur and Greatness of Allah Ta’ala Shanohu that they are afraid to say labaik (here am I offering myself for
Thy service!) lest they be rejected by Him.
Aishah Radhiallaho anha says that she asked Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, “Does this Ayat (No. 17
above) concern those who indulge in stealing, adultery, drinking wine and other sins, and at the same time they fear
due to the fact that they have to return to Allah?” (that is to say, they are afraid of facing Allah Ta’ala Shanohu for
their sins). Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam replied, “No! it concerns those who observe fasting, give in charity
and are regular in their Salaat, yet they are afraid all the time of rejection of these virtues.” In another Hadith Aishah
Radhiallaho anha asked Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam whether the aforesaid Hadith (S. No. 17) referred to
those who committed sins and mistakes and feared Allah. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam answered in the
negative and explained that it referred, instead, to persons who offer Salaat, observe Fast, and give Sadaqah and
still their hearts are full of fear.
Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has been quoted to say that it refers to the people who do righteous deeds but are
apprehensive. Saeed Ibne Jubair Rahmathullah alaihe says that it refers to those who give charity but fear the
severity of accountability in front of Allah Ta’ala. Hasan Basri Rahmathullah alaihe says that they are the people
who act righteously, yet fear that their virtues may not bring them salvation. The face of Zainul Abedin
Rahmathullah alaihe Ibne Hussain Radhiallaho anho used to turn pale when he stood up to perform Salaat and his
body shivered. When someone asked him the reason, he said in reply, “Do you know before whom I am standing?”
Several instances of this type have been mentioned in the “Virtues of Salaat” and a special Chapter has been
devoted in “Stories of Sahabah” concerning those who feared Allah Ta’ala Shanohu.
18. And let not those who possess dignity and ease among you, swear not to give to near of kin and to the needy,
and to fugitives for the cause of Allah. Let them forgive and show indulgence. Do you not yearn that Allah may
forgive you? Allah is forgiving, merciful.
(An-Noor: 22)
Note: In the battle of Bani Mustaliq in the sixth year of Hijrah, Aisha Radhiallaho anha accompanied Rasulullah
Sallallaho alaihe wasallam. She had a separate camel to ride. A litter was fitted on it for her; she stayed in the litter
most of the time.
Before moving, a few men would lift the litter and tie it on the back of the camel. She was very light in weight, so
much so that the men lifting the litter would not feel the weight of a very light young lady. As usual, the caravan
stopped at a certain place for the night. Just before the time of departure early next morning, the litter carriers came
and tied it on the back of the camel, while Aishah Radhiallaho anha had gone out to ease herself. When she
returned, she found that the necklace which she wore was missing.
She went back to the spot, where she had been, to look for it. Meanwhile the caravan left the camping site,
assuming that Aishah Radhiallaho anha was occupying the litter. She was left alone in the wilderness. She felt that
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam would notice her absence on the way and someone would be sent back to
the site to look for her. She sat down on that very spot where her camel-litter had been put. Feeling tired she went
to sleep, with composure of mind which was a Divine gift to the blessed people of that period; whereas a woman of
today, left alone in the wilderness in darkness, would be so frightened that instead of going to sleep she would be
crying and wailing, till morning.
**************
Safwan Ibne Mu’attal Radhiallaho anho, a venerable Sahabi who always travelled well behind the caravan for
picking up anything left or dropped behind, came to the spot where Aishah Radhiallaho anha was sleeping, and
noticed a person lying on the ground. When he came closer, he recognised Aishah Radhiallaho anha whom he had
seen before the Ayat about ‘Pardah’ (veil) was revealed. He loudly recited:
Inna lillahi wa inna ilaihe raajioon
Thereupon she woke up and covered her face. He made his camel sit down and she mounted it. He then led the
camel by its nose-string and overtook the caravan. Abdullah Ibne Ubayye, the leader of the hypocrites and a deadly
enemy of the Muslims, seized this chance of slander mongering and making a scandal.
He gave wide publicity to this incident. Some of the simple-minded Muslims also joined in this rumour. Imagine the
Majesty and Might of Allah Ta’ala, this kept circulating for a month and no Ayat was revealed to prove the
innocence of Aishah Radhiallaho anha. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and all the Muslims were distressed
due to that incident. Obviously, it was a severe shock.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam consulted a number of men and women and made enquiries about it, but no
satisfactory solution was forth coming until, after one month, a whole ‘Ruku’ of Surah an-Noor was revealed
indicating the innocence of Aishah Radhiallaho anha and containing severe reprimand of Allah Ta’ala for those who
circulated the slander without any basis. One of such persons was Mistah Radhiallaho anho, a Sahabi, who was
related to and was looked after by Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho.
Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho was much grieved over the participation of that Sahabi in spreading the false allegation
and, in that grief, he swore that he would no longer help Mistah Radhiallaho anho; therefore, the above Ayaat were
revealed. It appears that beside Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho some other Sahabah also had withdrawn their helping
hand from certain persons who had indulged in the gossip. Aishah Radhiallaho anha says that Mistah had actively
participated in this, in spite of being a relative of Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho. Mistah was dependent on the financial
support of Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho and, when the innocence of Aishah Radhiallaho anha was established, Abu
Bakr swore not to help Mistah.
Thereupon the above Ayat was revealed, after which, Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho renewed the help. Another Hadith
says that, after the above Ayat was revealed, Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho doubled the allowance of Mistah
Radhiallaho anho. Still another Hadith says that there were two orphans whom Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho used to
support, one of whom was Mistah; Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho had stopped maintenance for both of them, by taking
the oath. Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has said that there were several Sahabah who took part in the false
allegation against Aishah Radhiallaho anha and for that a large number of Sahabah including Abu Bakr Radhiallaho
anho had sworn not to give help or spend on the participants of that ugly episode.
Thereupon the Ayat referred to above was revealed, saying that those who are men of means should not forswear
helping their near relations and should spend as they were doing before. (Durre Manthur). How great was the
forbearance shown by Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho whose daughter’s chastity was the subject of false allegations
and yet he kept helping the slanderer and gave twice as much as he did before!
19. Who forsake their beds to cry unto their Lord in fear and hope and spend of what We have bestowed on them.
No soul knoweth what is kept hid for them of joy, as a reward for what they used to do. (as-Sajda: 16-17).
Note: Scholars of ‘Tafseer’ have expressed two different opinions about “Keep away from their beds at night.” One
takes it as the period between ‘Maghrib’ and ‘Isha’ Salaat; most Traditions confirm this version. Anas Radhiallaho
anho has said that this Ayat was revealed concerning the Ansaar, because they did not go to their homes after
Maghrib Salaat and stayed on till after they had performed Isha Salaat with Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam.
Yet another Hadith quoted by Anas Radhiallaho anho states that a number of Muhajireen were in the habit of
performing Nafl after Maghrib till Isha and this Ayat was revealed concerning them. Bilal Radhiallaho anho says,
“We used to remain seated after Maghrib Salaat and a group of Sahabah kept themselves busy in Salaat, till Isha,
and it was regarding them that this Ayat was revealed.” Abdullah Ibne Eisa Radhiallaho anho has also confirmed
**************
the statement regarding the Ansaar that they performed Nafl Salaat between ‘Maghrib’ and ‘Isha’. Another opinion
relates it to Tahajjud Salaat.
Ma’az Radhiallaho anho has quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying that this Ayat refers to
standing up at night. Another Hadith, quoted by Mujahid Rahmatullah alaihe, says that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe
wasallam talked about standing in Salaat at night and tears rolled down from his eyes.
At that time, he recited this particular Ayat. Abdullah Ibne Masood Radhiallaho anho has said that, according to the
Taurah, for those who remain away from their beds at night (for standing in Salaat), Haq Ta’ala Shanohu has
prepared bounties which no eye has ever seen, nor any ear has heard, nor any thought thereof crossed any mind;
and no angel, nor any Nabi or Rasul knows about them; and the same has been referred to in this Ayat of the Holy
Qur’an.
Abu Hurairah Radhiallaho anho has quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying that Allah Ta’ala has
prepared such bounties for the pious as no eye has ever seen, no ear ever heard of, nor have those things crossed
anybody’s mind. Hundreds of instances have been quoted, in the “Raudhatur-Riyaheen” and similar books, of such
people who used to spend their nights in Salaat, crying and weeping in remembrance of their Lord. Imaam Abu
Hanifah Rahmatullah alaihe, for forty years, performed his morning Salaat with the same ‘Wudu’ for the previous
‘Isha’ Salaat. His is a well-known example, which cannot be denied.
It is also commonly known that he used to complete two readings of the Qur’an in a day during the month of
Ramadan, one at night and one during the day. Uthman Radhiallaho anho is well-known for keeping vigil, reciting
the whole Qur’an in a single Rak’at. Umar Radhiallaho anho after returning from Isha often spent the rest of the
night in ‘Nafl’ Salaat.
It was a usual practice of Tamim Dari Radhiallaho anho, a well known Sahabi, to recite the whole Qur’an in one
Rak’at; sometimes he repeated a single Ayat the whole night. Shaddad Ibne Auf Radhiallaho anho used to lie in
bed but, after turning from side to side a few times, would get up saying, “O Allah! My sleep has fled away due to
the fear of Jahannam.” He used to spend the whole night praying. Umair Radhiallaho anho used to offer a thousand
Raka’at of ‘Nafl’ Salaat everyday and recited ‘Tasbeeh’ a hundred thousand times daily. Uwais Qarni Rahmatullah
alaihe is a famous Tabi’ee, of whom Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has spoken highly and even asked his
people to request him for Du’aa. He would say one night, “This night is for Ruku” and spend the whole night
standing in Rukhu. On another night, he would say, “This night is for Sajda,” and spend it lying prostrate in Sajda.
(Iqamat-ul-Hujjah)
In short, so numerous are the instances of such pious persons spending the whole night, all their lives pining in the
remembrance of their beloved Lord, that it is practically impossible to encompass them all. A poet said:
“We shed tears by night, remembering our beloved; while asleep, we dream of Him alone!”
At the end, the author (Shaikul Hadith Muhammad Zakariyya Rahmatullah alaihe) says, ‘Would that Allah Ta’ala
grants this humble author a little of their zeal for devotions!”
20. Say: “Lo! My Lord enlarges the provision for him whom He wills of His bondsmen and narrows it. And
whatsoever you spend (for the cause of Allah), He will replace it. And He is the best of Providers.” (as- Sabaa: 39)
Note: Both prosperity and poverty are from Allah Ta’ala. To restrict spending will not bring prosperity, nor excessive
spending cause poverty. On the contrary, whatever is spent for the cause of Allah shall definitely be compensated
in Akhirah and in this life also. One Hadith says, “The angel Jibra’il Alaihissalam has quoted Allah Jalla Shanohu as
saying. “My bondsmen, I have bestowed My bounties upon you, out of sheer Benevolence, and I have asked you
for loan. So, whosoever gives Me loan, of his own accord, I shall requite him readily in this world and also preserve
it for him in the Hereafter; as for him who does not give Me of his own accord, I shall take back forcibly what I have
granted him. But if he observes patience (after the loss) hoping to be rewarded for that, I shall make it incumbent
upon Myself to shower blessings upon him, shall record his name among the properly guided and grant him vision
of Myself (on the Day of Resurrection)” (Kanz)
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What a great favour of Allah Ta’ala! He has fixed a reward even for him who does not spend of his own accord but
remains patient when some of his possessions are forcibly taken away from him, though such a one does not
deserve any credit as he is not willing to give anything away in Sadaqah. But there is no limit to the bounties of
Allah Ta’ala conferred on men.
Hassan Radhiallaho anho says that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, explaining this Ayat, said, “Whatever
you spend on your family and dependents, avoiding extravagance and miserliness, will be recorded as spending in
the cause of Allah.” Jabir Radhiallaho anho has quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, “Anything
spent on one’s family, as permitted by Shariah, avoiding expenditure on buildings or on sinful acts, has a return
from Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala.” Another Hadith, from the same source, says that every act of kindness counts as
Sadaqah; anything spent on oneself and one’s family will also count as Sadaqah; and all that is spent in accordance
with Shariah and to protect one’s honour shall count as Sadaqah.
Allah undertakes to give good return for all that, except what is spent on forbidden things or on construction.
A full version of the same has also been given in Durre Manthur by Allama Suyooti Rahmatullah alaihe. Abu
Hurairah Radhiallaho anho has quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, “Two angels pray every
morning: one implores Allah to grant a befitting return to those who spend and the other prays that the property of
the one who hoards should be destroyed.” This subject has been treated under the Hadith given at Serial No. 2
below.
Experience also shows that the door of Divine favours is permanently open for those who are generous in spending,
while calamities like illness, litigation, theft, etc., cause in a few days, heavy losses in the wealth which the hoarders
have amassed in years! Moreover if, due to some good deed of a person, his hoarded wealth is saved from a
calamitous loss in his lifetime, his unworthy heirs will squander it in a few months after his death. Hazrat Asmaa
Radhiallaho anha narrates that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said to her, “Spend generously! And do not
count your hoarded money, lest Allah Ta’ala should also grant you calculated amounts; and do not hoard money,
lest Allah should also hoard to deprive you; but give away as much as you can.”
Once Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam visited Bilal Radhiallaho anho and saw that he had a pile of dates lying
beside him. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “What is this?” He replied, “It is something I have stored for
my future needs.” At this, Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “Are you not afraid to see, on account of it,
the smoke in the fire of Jahannam? Spend liberally, O Bilal, and do not fear loss in your provision from the Lord of
the Throne (Arsh).”
This Hadith warns against storing up things for one’s future needs, and says that such people shall see the fire of
Jahannam. As a matter of fact, the warning was befitting for Bilal Radhiallaho anho who enjoyed a respected
position and Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam did not approve of his worrying for tomorrow’s needs, as it
implied a lack of complete trust in Allah Ta’ala Who provides for the needs of tomorrow as He provides for today.
Everybody has a specific position and Allah demands excellence in behaviour varying from man to man.
A well-known maxim says: “What is good enough in a common man, as virtue, might seem a shortcoming in those
who have attained a high position in nearness to Allah Ta’ala.” Many instances can be quoted to illustrate this point.
Clearly, wealth is not a thing worth keeping and least for hoarding.
It has been created only for spending, least on oneself and most on others, and therein lies its true benefit!
Nevertheless, the most important thing to realise is the motive for an action, with which it is performed. The famous
Hadith, in this connection, is:
“The value of any action depends on the intention.” (Bukhari)
Spending even on oneself or one’s kinsmen or strangers is bound to bring Divine blessings and benefits, if it is done
with the intention to please Allah Ta’ala. But with wrong intention, like publicity or fame, etc., the good deed would
be ruined and a misdeed, instead, be established, there being no question of any type of Barakah (Divine blessings)
accruing from it.
**************
21. Surely those who recite the book of Allah and establish Salaat, and spend of that which We have bestowed on
them, secretly and openly, may look forward to an imperishable gain; that He will reward them and increase them of
His bounties. Surely, He is Forgiving, and a Generous Patron. (al-Faatir: 29-30)
Note: Qatadah Rahmatullah alaihe says that ‘imperishable gain’ implies Jannah, which will never be destroyed nor
become valueless and ‘increase of His bounties’ refers to what is contained in another Ayat of the Holy Qur’an.
(Durree Manthur)
The Ayat quoted by Qatadah Rahmatullah alaihe occurs in Surah ‘Qaaf’; it reads:
There (in Jannah) they shall have all they desire and there is ‘more’ with Us.” (Which We shall grant them). (Qaaf:
35)
The Ahadith explaining (Mazeedhun) “More” mention marvellous things which demand a detailed discussion. Of
these the best is that ‘More’ signifies as assurance by Allah, to be given to the inhabitants of Jannah, that Allah is
pleased with them, and His granting them the bliss of having a vision of Himself, which will be repeatedly granted to
the most fortunate ones.
What a great reward in return for a few simple acts involving little labour, namely, spending generously in the path
of Allah, establishing Salaat and being constant in recitation of the Qur’an, which is an enjoyable experience even in
this life! A few examples of the blessings of constant recitation from the Glorious Qur’an have been mentioned in
the ‘Faza’il-e-Qur’an’, which should be carefully studied.
22. And those who answer the call of their Lord, and establish Salaat, and whose affairs are a matter of counsel
among themselves, and who spend of what We have bestowed upon them. (such people shall enjoy bounties of
Allah which shall be far superior and more lasting than worldly things) (ash-Shuraa: 38).
Note: The Ayat of Ruku 4 of ‘as-Shuraa’ (of which the above mentioned Ayat forms a part) recounts various
attributes of the perfectly pious people; and contains the promise that Allah Ta’ala has reserved for them rewards
(in Akhirah) which are far superior to the bounties of this life. The Ulama have said that the Ayat:
“For those who believe and put their trust in Allah”
and the subsequent Ayaat contain an account of the special attributes of the ‘Kulafa-e-Rashideen’ Radhiallaho
anhum and a prophecy about the conditions that were to prevail in the respective times (in broad terms) of Abu
Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali Radhiallaho anhum, and even in the time of Hasan and Husain Radhiallaho anhum,
with an implicit reference to the order of their succession. The Ayaat also forewarn against certain trying
circumstances that the Khulafa had to face in the respective periods of their Caliphate.
Moreover, there is the promise of abundant reward in the Akhirah for the Khulafa-e-Rashideen. The generality of
expression extends that promise to all those who strive to cultivate these qualities in themselves. Would that we
Muslims had love for Deen and a zeal to search out, in the Qur’an and Ahadith those high morals and virtues, and
adopted them! But alas! Our morals continue to deteriorate. In fact, they have fallen so low that non-Muslims have
developed an aversion for Islam.
Unfortunately, the non-Muslims do not realise that Muslims in general have given up Islamic morals; so, whatever
conduct they see in Muslims today, they consider it to be a Islamic morality! So, we beseech Allah for help!
23. And in their wealth the beggar and the outcast had due share. (az-Zariyaat: 19)
Note: This is in continuation of the attributes and virtues of those who are blessed with perfect faith. The special
thing about such people is that they give charity so frequently and regularly as if it was their bounden duty. Ibne
Abbas Radhiallaho anho says that the Ayat, ‘in their wealth’ indicates a specific portion, other than Zakaat, out of
which they spend on relatives, entertain their guests and help the destitute.
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Mujahid Rahmatullah alaihe says that this implies spending in addition to Zakaat. Ibrahim Rahmatullah alaihe says
that it means, “They always believe that others have a right in their property in addition to Zakaat” Ibne Abbas
Radhiallaho anho has said that the ‘Mahroom’ (deprived ones) are those wretched people who have desire or need
for things of this life but remain without them and yet they do not beg. Another Hadith says that they are those who
get no share from the Bait-ul-maal (public treasury).
Aishah Radhiallaho anha has said that the ‘deprived one’ is he, who is in poverty due to insufficient income. Abu
Qalaba has said that there was a man in Yamamah, whose total belongings were swept away in a flood.
One of the Sahabah Radhiallaho anho said about him that this man was a deprived person (Mahroom) and that he
must be helped. Abu Hurairah Radhiallaho anho has quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, “The
poor are not those who beg for a morsel from door to door; rather the really poor person is he who has insufficient
means to meet his legitimate needs but people are not aware of his condition warranting help; he is the one who is
truly deprived (Mahroom).”
When Fatimah Binte Qais Radhiallaho anha asked Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam about the meaning of this
Ayat, Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said that there were obligations in respect of property beside Zakaat.
(This particular Hadith will be repeated at Serial No. 16 under Ahadith). Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam
recited the Ayat:
“It is not righteousness that you turn your faces …”
A part of the above has been quoted at No. 2 above, in which payment of Zakaat has been mentioned separately
from charity to the poor. Therein is an encouragement to spend abundantly for the cause of Allah, apart from what
is given in Zakaat. But it is our misfortune that, nowadays, we feel distressed even while giving Zakaat. There are
many Muslims who do not care to give Zakaat, but would even pawn their homes to celebrate absurd festivals and
marriages, which amounts to waste of wealth here and retribution in the Hereafter.
24. Believe in Allah and His Rasul, and spend (for the cause of Allah) of that whereof He has made you trustees;
and such of you as believe and spend (for the cause of Allah) theirs will be a great reward. (al-Hadeed: 7)
Note: The word, “Trustee” is meant to convey that the wealth you possess belonged to someone else and it is with
you only for a few days till your eyes are permanently closed, when it will pass on to others; therefore, it is a useless
exercise to collect it bit by bit.
Your wealth is disloyal, it does not stay permanently with anyone nor ever will. Lucky is he who can devise a way to
keep it permanently with himself and that is to deposit it in the treasury of Allah Jalla Shanohu where there will be
no fear of loss or its being taken away, whereas in this life fear and anxiety of a total loss always exist.
The Divine Power has repeatedly demonstrated that magnificent palaces, great estates and huge properties are, in
an instant, taken away from their owners and given to others! The sole owners of buildings and houses yesterday,
see with their own eyes others in possession of them today! Yet no one seems to take heed!
25. What has happened to you that you do not spend in the path of Allah; when all the heavens and the earth are
Heritage of Allah? Those who spent (for the cause of Allah) before the conquest (of Makkah) and fought, are not
comparable to those who did not, they are more exalted than those who spent and fought afterwards. And Allah has
promised good reward for all. And Allah is aware of what you do. (al-Hadeed: 10)
Note: the Heritage of Allah Ta’ala means that, when all mankind meet their end, each and everything (including the
total wealth of the earth and heavens) will be under the authority of the Divine Entity, the Creator, Who Alone will be
there. Since we all have to leave all our possessions behind, why not spend them happily with our hands and
receive a befitting return in the Akhirah? Thereafter the Ayat mentions a caution about the special status of those
who fought and spent for the cause of Allah before the conquest of Makkah.
**************
They are far superior to those who spend and fought after that great event, the reason being that the need then was
the greatest and, therefore, spending in those conditions had much greater value than on other occasions; hence a
much greater reward for it.
This point is further explained at No. 13 of the Ahadith. People must therefore look for such occasions, when the
needs of other people are pressing, seize the opportunity of spending on them and consider it a great blessing.
Allah Ta’ala Shanohu, on that basis, has differentiated between the various Sahabah, giving a superior reward to
those who spent before the conquest of Makkah, it being a period of grave crisis. Accordingly, one must bear in
mind that to help others at the time of their urgent need will be an act of higher value.
26. Who is he that will lend unto Allah a goodly loan that Allah Ta’ala will increase and for him there is an excellent
reward. (al-Hadeed:11)
Note: A similar point has been made in the Ayat given at No. 5 above. The repetition is meant simply to lay
emphasis on the subject matter. The Holy Qur’an repeatedly exhorts us that now is the time to spend in the path of
Allah, and to do it as much as we can. There will be nothing but remorse after death.
27. Indeed the men who give Sadaqah and the women who give Sadaqah (all of them) are lending a goodly loan to
Allah; the return for them will be increased; and for them shall be an exquisite reward. (al-Hadeed: 18)
Note: The Ayat means that those who spent as Sadaqah, in fact, lend a loan to Allah Ta’ala and, like any loan, this
will also be returnable to the givers, but much increased at the time when their need will be greatest and most
compelling; they will rather be without resources except for the befitting return of that loan from Allah Ta’ala. In this
life, people save up bit by bit for future needs like wedding of their children or any other needs. Particularly for future
weddings, they are constantly worried, keep buying dresses and ornaments and other things appropriate for those
occasions, so as to avoid any difficulty at that time.
The Day of Akhirah will be the day of our greatest need and most urgent necessity, but with no chance of buying,
borrowing or even begging from any source. For such a difficult and momentous occasion, one must save as much
as is possible. This would hardly be a strain here, but would bring a return of the size of mountains.
28. (Therein is the share of those people too). “Those who entered the city (Madinah) and the faith (Imaan) before
them and they love those who flee to them for refuge and they do not mind what the Muhajireen receive; and prefer
them before themselves though poverty may afflict them; whoever is saved from his own avarice, such are the
successful ones.” (al-Hashr: 9)
Note: The preceding Ayaat mention the categories of the people who were entitled to receive assistance from the
‘Baitul Maal’. This Ayat mentions the Ansaar Radhiallaho anhum, bringing out their particular virtues, one of these
being that they accepted Imaan and achieved spiritual perfection while staying at home. Normally, it is a difficult
thing to achieve these qualities while living at home, as worldly affairs and other matters become obstacles in the
way. The other special virtue that the Ansar possessed, was intense love for the Muhajireen.
Those who have knowledge of the early history of Islam are astonished at the instances manifesting the degree of
love the Ansaar had for the Muhajireen. Several such instances have been recounted in the “Stories of Sahabah.”
An incident is related here, as an example. When Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam migrated to Madinah, he
established a fraternity between the Muhajireen and Ansaar. Everyone among the Muhajireen entered into a sacred
bond of brotherhood with one from the Ansaar; the necessity arose because the Muhajireen were strangers in
Madinah and, as such, they were bound to face hardships in the new place.
The Ansaar, being locals, made life easy for the Muhajireen through their personal help and care. This was an
excellent arrangement, made by Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, whereby a man from the Ansaar found it
easy to take care of a Muhajir brother.
Each one was able to look after one particular person. Abdur Rahman Ibne Auf Radhiallaho anho, a Muhajir, has
related, his own story, this: “When the Muhajireen arrived in Madinah, I was conjoined with Sa’d Ibne Rabi’a
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Radhiallaho anho, an Ansaari, as a brother. Sa’d told me that he was the richest person in Madinah, and that I
could take half of his property and also marry one of his wives whom he would divorce for me, so that marriage
could take place after the expiry of ‘Iddat’ (waiting period)” (Bukhari)
Yazeed Ibne Asam Radhiallaho anho says that once the Ansaar requested Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam
that the agricultural land of each one of them should be divided in two parts and one half given to a Muhajir brother.
But Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam did not agree to the proposal and was pleased to arrange that the
Muhajireen should work on the farms of the Ansaar for a share of the produce, so that both would benefit from each
other, the Ansaar benefiting from the Muhajireen’s labour and the latter from the former’s land.
Today, it is impossible to imagine that such kinship could be created merely on the basis of religion. The irony of
fate is that, today, the Muslims (who were once well known for their self-sacrifice and sympathy for others) have
become engrossed in fulfilling their selfish and personal needs.
They do not mind giving trouble to others, as long as they themselves are in comfort. Muslim History is full of
instances of Muslims bearing hardships and misfortunes for the sake of others. It is said that a pious person had a
very bad-tempered wife, who gave him much annoyance all the time. A friend advised him to divorce her, but he
replied, “She would then marry another Muslim and would cause similar trouble to him.” (Ihya). That is a well said
statement! Could this be said about Muslims today? Could anyone of us bear to suffer in order to save others from
suffering?
The third quality of the Ansaar was that they were too broadminded to feel jealous of the Muhajireen when the latter
received something from the war booty. According to Hasan Basri Rahmathullah alaihe the Ayat means that the
Ansaar did not mind when the Muhajireen were given a general preference over them. (Durre Manthur)
The fourth quality mentioned in the Ayat is that the Ansaar willingly let others have material goods in spite of their
own poverty and hunger. Many instances of this have been mentioned in the histories of their lives. A few of those
have been recounted in the Author’s booklet entitled “Stories of Sahabah” in the section on “Sympathy and self-
sacrifice’. One of those is the famous event which occasioned the revelation of the above Ayat.
A man came to Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and complained of hunger and poverty; Rasulullah Sallallaho
alaihe wasallam sent someone to his own household for bringing some food for the visitor, but nothing was
available there. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam then asked the people present there, if anyone of them would
take the guest home and entertain him.
One of the Ansaar, whose name is said to be Abu Talha Radhiallaho anho, took the guest home and said to his
wife, “This is the guest of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam; look after him well, and do not keep back anything
in the house but serve it to him.” The wife replied there was not much food in the house except some for the
children. Abu Talha Radhiallaho anho told her to put the children to bed, lay the food before the grown ups (all
three, husband, wife, and the guest) and when they sit to eat, put the candle out, pretending to adjust it; so that the
guest might eat his fill, they themselves not touching the food while their guest would think they were sharing it.
The wife did accordingly. The guest ate while they spent the night hungry. In the morning, when Abu Talha
Radhiallaho anho came to Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, he said that Allah Ta’ala was greatly pleased with
Abu Talha and his wife for their entertainment of their guest the previous night. It was on this occasion that the
above Ayat was revealed.
In the series of Ahadith given below, the Hadith quoted at serial No. 13 gives further explanation of this Ayat. After
recounting the virtues of the Ansaar, the Ayat states that the persons who protect themselves from greed or avarice
(Shuhh) are the successful ones. ‘Shuhh’ means innate greed and miserliness, which may not be manifest in
practice. That is why the Ulama have explained it in various ways.
The Qur’anic word Shuhh in proper terms means greed or avarice. It includes greed for money as well as the desire
to take others’ property. A person came to Abdullah Ibne Mas’ood Radhiallaho anho and complained that he was
ruined.
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On being asked, “How?” the man replied, “Allah Jalla Shanohu has ordained that only those will attain success who
are free from Shuhh, and I am suffering from Shuhh because I do not like to lose anything that I possess.” Ibne
Mas’ood Radhiallaho anho said that he was not suffering from Shuhh but from miserliness, although that was also
not a good thing; Shuhh means taking away another’s property unjustly. Ibne Umar Radhiallaho anho has also been
quoted to say the same thing as Ibne Mas’ood Radhiallaho anho, adding that Shuhh is much worse than
miserliness, as a miser only holds back his own property, while a man suffering from Shuhh does this and also
wishes that others’ wealth should become his property.
Ta’oos Rahmatullah alaihe says, “Miserliness consists in not spending out of one’s property; whereas Shuhh
causes a man to dislike others spending out of their property. Ibne Umar Radhiallaho anho is reported to have said
that Shuhh is even more hateful than miserliness because a miser withholds his own money and a man possessed
of Shuhh (innate greed) does not spend his own property and also wishes that others’ property should come into his
possession.
In one of the Ahadith Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that a person possessing the following three
qualities would be free from Shuhh: (a) giving Zakaat, (b) looking after one’s guest and (c) helping others in their
difficulties.
In another Hadith Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that nothing harms Islam more than Shuhh
(greed). Another Hadith states that the dust that gathers on one’s body while one is in the path of Allah and the
smoke of Jahannam can never remain together on any person; nor can Imaan and greed (Shuhh) remain together
in anybody’s heart.
In another Hadith, Jabir Radhiallaho anho has quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, “Beware of
oppression (cruelty), for oppression will produce layers upon layers of darkness on the Day of Judgment, and
protect yourself against Shuhh, for Shuhh destroyed the people before you; it made them shed one another’s blood
and induced them to commit adultery among their close relations whom it is unlawful to marry.” Abu Hurairah
Radhiallaho anho says that he heard Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam saying, “Preserve yourselves from
innate greed and miserliness, for these evils caused the people before you to sever bonds of relationship with their
kinsmen, induced them to commit adultery with women among their close relations forbidden for marriage, and led
them to blood-shed.” Obviously, committing adultery with a stranger woman costs something while incest with one’s
daughter costs nothing. Similarly, plundering others’ property leads to blood-shed.
Anas Radhiallaho anho says that once a person died in the times of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and
people said that he would go to Jannah but Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said, “Do you know everything
about his life? It is just possible that he may have something that did not concern him or might have been miserly in
a matter which brought him no benefit.” In another Hadith, this incident has been related differently. A man died a
martyr in the battle of Uhad. A woman came to his body and said, “Congratulations on your Shahadah (martyrdom)
O son!” Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam said to her, “You are unaware whether he had uttered something
irrelevant or ever acted as a miser about a thing which was of little use to him.” Indeed, to be stingy about a trifle is
the worst form of greediness.
29. O you who believe! Let not your wealth nor your children distract you from remembrance of Allah. Those who do
so, they are the losers. And spend of that wherewith We have provided you, before death comes unto one of you
and he says: ‘My Lord! If Thou wouldst reprieve me for a little while, then I would give Sadaqah and be among the
righteous.’ But Allah reprieves no soul when its term comes and Allah is aware of what you do. (Al-Munafiqoon: 9-
10-11)
Note: Engagements concerning property or money matters together with involvement in the family affairs, usually
become a hindrance in fulfilling the commandments of Allah, the Almighty. This happens in spite of the certainty of
death whose timing remains unknown; when that moment arrives nothing shall avail a person except grief and
disappointment.
The household, the family, riches and property, all shall have to be left behind and one shall leave the world
helpless. Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying, “When death
comes to a person who had sufficient wealth to perform Hajj and to give Zakaat and yet did not accomplish these,
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he would pine for a return to this world.” Someone said to Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho that only a Kafir wishes to
rejoin worldly life, not a Muslim, Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho recited this particular Ayat and said that Allah has
addressed this Ayat to the Muslims.
In another Hadith, Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has been quoted to say that the Ayat refers to a Mo’min; when
death comes to a Mo’min who has had sufficient wealth to enable him to give Zakaat as well as to perform Hajj, and
yet has failed to do so in his lifetime, besides neglecting many other obligations towards Allah, he will wish to return
to life, so that he may fulfil all those obligations. Nevertheless, Allah Jalla Jalalohu has decreed that when the
moment of death comes, it cannot be delayed. (Durre Manthur)
The Holy Qur’an reminds men, time and again, that the moment of death has been fixed for every individual and
that there can be no postponement. Man keeps thinking of giving such and such thing as Sadaqah, of dedicating
such and such things for a sacred cause, and of donating so much to so and so through his will; but he remains
absorbed in such thoughts till Fate suddenly takes his life.
And he dies suddenly while sitting, walking or sleeping. Therefore, one should not delay the performance of virtuous
deeds by prolonged thinking or planning, but one should spend for the cause of Allah as soon as possible and
deposit it with Him.
30. O ye who believe! Fear Allah. And let every soul look to that which it has sent for the morrow. Fear Allah! Lo!
Allah is informed of what you do. And be not you like those who forgot Allah, therefore He caused them to forget
their souls. Such are the evil-doers. Not equal are the inhabitants of the Fire (Jahannam) and the dwellers of
Jannah; the dwellers of Jannah shall be the victorious. (al-Hashar: 18-20)
Note: ‘Allah caused them to forget their souls’ means they lost their intelligence and were unable to distinguish
between right and wrong and indulged in things ruinous for themselves. Jarir Radhiallaho anho says that once at
mid-day he was in attendance upon Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam when a Jama’at of the Mudhar tribe
arrived. They were all bare-headed and bare-footed and in a state of starvation.
Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam turned pale with grief to see them in this condition and went into his dwelling
(obviously to get something for the visitors). He returned to the Masjid after a while and ordered Bilal Radhiallaho
anho to say Azaan.
After performing the Zuhur Salaat he mounted the pulpit, praised Allah Ta’ala and recited some Ayaat of the Holy
Quran including the one above. He then exhorted the people to give Sadaqah before it becomes impossible to do
so and repeated this by saying, “You must give before you become powerless to give, and give immediately
whatever you can: a Dinaar, a Dirham, a piece of cloth, a little wheat barley, dates or even a piece of a date.”
Hearing this, a man from the Ansaar got up, went home and brought a heavy bag full of things which he could
hardly carry, and presented it to Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam, whose serene face brightened with joy and
he said that whosoever sets a good example shall get a reward for that as well as the reward equivalent to the
reward of those who follow his good example, without any reduction in the latter’s reward. Similarly, if a person sets
a bad example, it will count as a sin against him and the sins of those who follow that example shall also go into his
account, without any reduction in the latter’s burden.
Thereupon, all the people went away and returned with something to give, a Dinaar or a Dirham or some grain. The
result was that there were two heaps of clothes and grain, etc., gathered in front of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe
wasallam. These were all distributed among the tribe of Mudhar. (Nisai-Durre Manthur)
One of the Ahadith states, “O people send something in advance. The time is soon coming when Allah Ta’ala will
talk to you without an intermediary and without a veil and say, ‘Did not My Rasul come to you with My
commandments? Did I not grant you wealth? Was it not more than your own needs? What did you send in advance
for your requirements here?’ The man will look around and see nothing except Jahannam in front of him.” The
Hadith further states, “Whoever wishes to save himself from this situation must give Sadaqah, even if it be a portion
of a date.” (Kanz). It will be a terrible situation and a frightening stock-taking.
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The blazing Fire of Jahannam will be in front of the men trembling with the fear of being thrown into it at any
moment, and deeply sorrowing for not having given away everything in worldly life and for withholding money for
imaginary needs, and for wasting it on useless things. When the eyes close, all needs vanish except the severe
one”, an escape from Jahannam which will keep haunting a person.
Abu Bakr Siddiq Radhiallaho anho addressing the people said, “Bear in mind that the tenure of your life, out of
which you spend mornings and evenings, is not known to you. You do not know when your end will come. You
should, if you can, most carefully utilise it before the end comes. This you can only do if Allah wills. There were
people who spent their time in useless occupations; Allah Jalla Shanohu has forbidden you to be like them and has
said:
And be not like those who forgot Allah, therefore He caused them to forget themselves. (Al-Hasher: 19)
Where are those of your brethren whom you knew? They have departed after finishing their term; their deeds have
come to an end and they are face to face with reckoning of their deeds. They will lead a joyful life if their deeds were
good or be in suffering if they were bad. Where are those despots of the past who raised walled cities for their
protection? They are lying now under stones and mounds.
This is the Sacred Word of Allah whose marvels shall never end, nor will its light grow dim. Get light from the Word
of Allah today, to serve you during the dark days to come, and give heed to its warnings. Allah Ta’ala has praised
certain people and said:
They hastened to do good deeds and called Us with Mixed feelings of longing and fear and showing humility
towards Us. (al-Ambyia:90)
Abu Bakr Radhiallaho anho went on saying, “That word has no merit which is not intended to please Allah; and that
wealth is without benefit which is not spent for the cause of Allah; and that man is not good whose patience does
not overcome his anger, and he is not a proper person who is concerned more about people’s reproach than the
pleasure of Allah Ta’ala Shanohu.” (Durre Manthur)
31. Your wealth and your children are only a temptation, whereas, Allah! With Him is an immense reward. So keep
your duty to Allah as best as you can, and listen, and obey and spend; that is better for your souls. And whoso is
saved from his own greed, such are successful. (at-Taghabun: 15-16)
Note: Shuhh i.e. innate greed is the worst form of miserliness and we have already dealt with it under the Ayat given
at No. 28 above. Wealth and children are a great trial for men: to distinguish those whose excessive love for them
makes them neglect the commandments and remembrance of Allah, from those who persevere in loyalty to Him,
despite these two temptations.
Of course, the example to be followed is that of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam who had nine wives, several
children and grand-children. In addition Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and most of the Sahabah Radhiallaho
anhum had very large families. Many books on history give details of their children and grandchildren. It is difficult to
calculate the exact number of the sons, grandsons and great grandsons of Anas Radhiallaho anho, who himself
remarked once, “Not to speak of the descendants of my sons and daughters, I have myself buried one hundred and
twenty five persons out of my direct descendants.” (Isabah).
One can imagine how many might have survived after his death and how large was the number of his sons,
grandsons, great-grandsons, and other descendants! And yet Anas Radhiallaho anho is counted among the
Sahabah who have transmitted a large number of Ahadith, and who took part in Jehaad frequently! Such a large
family and its obligations could not deter him from participation in Jehaad, nor distract him from the pursuit of
knowledge of Ahadith.
When Zubair Radhiallaho anho was martyred, his survivors included four wives, nine sons and nine daughters, and
a few of his grandsons were even older than some of his sons. (Bukhari). Apart from these, he had other children
who had died in his life. In spite of such a large family, he never joined any service or occupation, but spent his
entire life in Jehaad and striving for the cause of ‘Deen’. Similarly, there were many other Sahabah like them, who
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never allowed families, however large, or abundant wealth to deter them from the performance of their religious
obligations and functions. A number of them had large business concerns but never did these hinder them from
observing their religious duties. Allah Ta’ala Himself has praised him in the Holy Qur’an by saying:
(They are such) people whom buying and selling do not prevent from the remembrance of Allah, performance of
Salaat and giving Zakaat. They are fearful of the Day when all hearts and eyes will be overturned, but in their case
they will receive excellent returns for their noble deeds and Allah Ta’ala, by His special favour, will grant them extra
rewards. (an-Noor: 37-38)
Several incidents have been related in the explanatory discussions of this Ayat. It is said that the Sahabah were
businessmen, but business never prevented them from the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala. When the Azaan was
called, they would immediately leave their shops for the performance of Salaat. (Durre-Manthur).
32. If you lend unto Allah a goodly loan, He will double it for you and will forgive you, for Allah is Responsive,
Clement, Knower of the invisible and visible, the Mighty, the Wise. (at-Taghabun: 17-18)
Note: The same subject has been treated in the Ayaat given at Serial No’s 25, 26 and 27. It is Allah Jalla Shanohu’s
special bounty and kind regard for the well-being of His bondsmen that He has repeatedly recounted the things
which are important for them.
We often recite these Ayaat merely for the sake of earning blessings of recitation with it. It is a favour of the
Gracious Allah that He grants good returns for the mere recitation of the Qur’an. But it has to be borne in mind that
the Qur’an has not been revealed simply for recitation, but its sacred commandments are to be put into practise and
properly followed in life. It should be realised that when the Sovereign and Lord of the whole Universe, Who is our
Benefactor, our Guardian and Helper, our Cherisher and, above all, our Creator, repeatedly orders us to do
something and we, in response, merely say, “Yes, O Lord we have read your directions and orders”, and remain
content with that, would not that be height on injustice?
33. And establish Salaat, and pay Zakaat, and (so) lend unto Allah a goodly loan. Whatsoever good you send
before you for your souls, you will surely find it with Allah, better and greater in the recompense, and seek
forgiveness of Allah. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (al-Muzammil: 20)
(A goodly loan or ‘Qardh-e-Hasanah’ is a loan without interest or any thought of gain or loss.)
Note: “Better and greater in the recompense” means that a donor will be given better and greater recompense in
the Hereafter for the money spent as Sadaqah, far better in quality and quantity than the thing he would have got, in
return for the money, if he had spent it in the world, for instance, two kilograms of wheat for a rupee. The fact is that
the recompense in the Hereafter would be far superior to the possible worldly returns both in quality and quantity.
We have already quoted a Hadith under the Ayat given at Serial No. 7 to the effect that “Even a date is given away
as Sadaqah out of the lawfully earned property, with sincerity of intention, Allah Ta’ala grants increase in the
recompense for it, till it becomes as large as the Mount Uhad.”
Would that we appreciated the generosity of our Bounteous Lord Who grants such enormous rewards for such
small amounts of Sadaqah, and deposited with Him as much money as possible! For, then He would have returned
it to us with bountiful increase, at the time of our dire need.
In this Ayat, Allah Ta’ala has also promised that whatsoever virtue we send before us, He will accord us an equal
recompense for it. In our booklet, “Barakaat-e-Zikr” we have quoted many Ahadith about the increase in rewards for
good deeds, including the following Hadith:
In the estimation of Allah the reward for saying:
(SubhanAllah) Allah be glorified, or (Alhamdulillah) All praises to Allah or (lailaaha illAllah) There is none to be
worshipped but Allah, or (Allahu Akbar) Allah is Great, is even larger than Mount Uhad, provided these are recited
with the purest motive of pleasing Allah.
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As a matter of fact, sincerity of intention is the first condition for the acceptance of any virtuous deed. A good deed
performed insincerely, with a worldly motive, shall be of no value in the Akhirah. For cultivating this quality, one has
to associate with spiritual guides (Mashaaikh), serve them devotedly and earn their favour. For it is only through
associating with such people that one can learn how to perform good deeds solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala.
34. Lo! The righteous shall drink of a cup whereof the mixture is of water of Kafur. A spring wherefrom the slaves of
Allah drink, making it gush forth abundantly (in whatever direction they would desire). They fulfil the vow and fear a
day whereof the evil is wide-spreading. And they feed the needy, the orphan and the captive, for love of Allah. And
say: “We feed you for the sake of Allah only, we wish for no reward or thanks from you.
Because we only fear a day of wrath and fate from your Lord”. Therefore, Allah hath warded off from them the evil
of that day and made them find brightness and joy; and hath awarded them, for all that they endured, a Garden and
silk-attire; reclining therein upon couches, they will find there neither (heat of) sun nor bitter cold. The shade thereof
will be close upon them and the clustered fruits bow down (at their command). Goblets of silver are brought round
for them and beakers of glass: (Bright as) glass but (made) of silver.
They themselves will determine the measure thereof (according to their wishes). They will have a drink in a cup
whereof the mixture is of Zanjabeel (ginger); the water of a spring therein named Salsabeel. There serve them
young men of everlasting youth, whom when you see you would take them for scattered pearls. When you look, you
will see their bliss and immense territory. Their raiment will be fine green silk and gold embroidery, bracelets of
silver will they wear. Their Lord will satisfy their thirst with a pure drink (and it will be said unto them): Lo! This is a
reward for you. Your endeavour (upon earth) has found acceptance. (ad-Dahr:5-22)
Note: The sacred Ayaat describe three varieties of drink, the specific quality of each drink and the way in which it
will be taken. The first Ayat says that the righteous will drink it themselves, the second says that they will be offered
a drink by their servants, while in the third, it is said that the Lord of all creation, the Grand Sovereign Himself, would
present the drink to them. Probably, this may refer to three classes of the righteous; the common people, the
superior ones and the highest class.
In these Ayaat the greatness, honour and virtues of the righteous have been mentioned, which they shall attain
especially through the performance of good deeds, particularly feeding the poor for the pleasure of Allah. If we had
perfect Imaan and believed firmly in these promises, every one of us would like to follow the example of Siddiq-e-
Akbar Radhiallaho anho, who gave away everything in his house to win Allah’s pleasure, leaving behind only the
blessings associated with the names of Allah and His Rasul. These Ayaat refer to a few matters which need special
attention:
1. There is mention of fountains which the dwellers of Jannah would shift to any place they like. Mujahid
Rahmatullah alaihe explains that those fountains will flow to any point and in any direction of their choice. Qatadah
Rahmatullah alaihe says that they will have drinks which have a mixture of ‘Kafoor’ and are sealed with fragrant
musk, and the water of the fountains will run in any direction they desire.
Ibne Shauzab Rahmatullah alaihe says that those people will have gold wands with which they will make a sign
indicating the direction in which the fountain should flow and that will come about.
2. Qatadah Rahmatullah alaihe has been quoted as saying, “They fulfilled the ‘vow’ means they acted upon every
order of Allah Ta’ala; that is why they have been called Abrar (the righteous). Mujahid Rahmatullah alaihe says that
the vow means an undertaking to perform a good deed for the sake of Allah (like fasting, I’tikaaf or worship). Ikrimah
Radhiallaho anho says, “It means offerings for thanks-giving.” Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has been quoted to
say that a man came to Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam and submitted that he had vowed to kill himself for
the sake of Allah. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam was busy in something else and could not properly attend
to him.
The man took his silence as an approval for fulfilling his vow and got up and went away to kill himself. Rasulullah
Sallallaho alaihe wasallam came to know what the man was about to do and said, “Thanks be to Allah who has
created such people in my Ummah who are so resolute in fulfilling their vows”, and he ordered the man not to kill
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himself but to slaughter one hundred camels instead, for taking one’s own life was forbidden by religion and the
ransom (blood-money) for a life taken was a hundred camels.
3. The feeding of prisoners in the Ayat concerns the idolaters who had become prisoners in various battles. There
were no Muslim prisoners at that time. When the feeding of non-Muslim prisoners carries so much reward from
Allah, the reward for the Muslim captives would be far greater.
Mujahid Rahmatullah alaihe says that Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam brought the captives of Badr (who were
infidels) to Madina, seven notable Sahabah, namely Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Zubair, Abdur Rahman, Sa’d, and Abu
Ubaidah Radhiallaho anhum were particularly generous in spending money on their food, etc. At this, the Ansaar
remarked, “We fought those prisoners in the cause of Allah and you are looking after them so lavishly.” Thereafter,
the nineteen Ayaat beginning (innal abraara) were revealed in praise of those Sahabah who looked after the
prisoners. Hasan Rahmatullah alaihe says that, at the time of revelation of these Ayaat, there were only idolaters as
prisoners.
Qatadah Rahmatullah alaihe says, “When Allah Jalla Shanohu ordered us to show kindness towards prisoners who
were idolators, the obligations in respect of Muslim prisoners must be far greater.” Ibne Jurraij Rahmatullah alaihe
says that there were no Muslim prisoners at the time when these Ayaat were revealed. Only the idolaters were
prisoners, and Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam gave orders for looking after their welfare. Abu Razeen
Rahmatullah alaihe says that once he was with Shaqeeq Ibne Salmah Rahmatullah alaihe when a few of the
prisoners passed that way, and Shaqeeq told him to give something as Sadaqah to the prisoners and recited the
above Ayaat.
4. ‘We wish for no reward nor thanks’, means that the Sahabah did not like to have any type of return at all for their
good deeds in this life, even in the form of Du’aa or thanks. They wanted total return for them in Akhirah. Aishah
and Umme Salmah Radhiallaho anhuma are reported to have given instructions, to the person who took their
Sadaqah to the poor, to quietly listen to what the recipient said after receiving it.
When the person reported back any words of Du’aa, etc., to the venerable ladies, they used to make the same kind
of of Du’aa, etc., in favour of the poor, saying that it was in return for what the poor had said, so that their Sadaqah
remained purely and solely for the Akhirah. Umar Radhiallaho anho and his son Abdullah Radhiallaho anho are
reported to have done the same. Zainul Abedin Rahmatullah alaihe has remarked that if the giver of Sadaqah waits
for the person in need to come to him, that would not count as real generosity.
The truly generous one is he who fulfils his obligations to Allah by going himself to the doors of the needy persons,
and does not expect any expression of thanks for that, in view of the full faith he has in the rewards from Allah.
5. ‘The bunches of the fruits of Jannah obeying the commands’ means that they will reach them when and where
the dwellers in Jannah wish them to reach. Baraa Ibne Aazib Radhiallaho anho says, “The inhabitants of Jannah
will be able to eat the fruit as they wish, while sitting, standing or lying”. Mujahid Rahmatullah alaihe says, “If they
wished to have fruit while standing, the bunch would bend and come in front of them, just within their reach; it would
bend lower if they desired to eat it while sitting; and it would bend still lower if they liked to eat it while lying.”
Another Hadith reports him (Mujahid) as saying, “The ground of Jannah is made of silver, its dust is musk, the roots
of its trees are made of gold, their branches and leaves are made of pearls and jasper, with the fruit dangling in
between them.
If the dwellers in Jannah would like to eat the fruit while standing they would experience no difficulty in reaching it; if
they desired to have it while sitting or reclining on their beds, it would bend down accordingly.”
6. ‘Bright as glass but made of silver’ means that the silver will be transparent like glass. Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho
anho has said that, in this life, if silver is beaten to the thinness of a fly’s wing, one cannot see water through it, but
in Jannah the silver goblets will be transparent. It has been said that, in this life, there are to be found samples of
everything in Jannah, except the goblets of silver of the type mentioned herein.
Qatadah Rahmatullah alaihe says that if all the experts in the world work together to make a transparent goblet of
this type, they will fail to do so. Ibne Abbas Radhiallaho anho has said that an incident relating to Ali and Fatimah
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Radhiallaho anhuma (which will be mentioned in the story No. 43 at the end of this book) occasioned the revelation
of these Ayaat. It is not an unusual thing to find an Ayat being revealed in consequence of more than one
occurrence taking place severally; in that case, it applies to all such incidents.
35. He is successful who purifies himself, And remembers the name of his Lord, and observes Salaat; but you
prefer the life of the world. Although the Akhirah is far better and everlasting. (al-A’laa: 14-17)
Note: The Ulama have given several interpretations of ‘purifies himself’; many of them say that it means ‘gives
Sadaqah at the end of Ramadhan, called ‘Sadaqatul Fitr’; While some of them give it a general sense. Saeed Ibne
Jubair Rahmatullah alaihe says that it means purifies himself of (the taint of) his lawfully earned wealth (through
payment of Zakaat).
Qatadah Rahmatullah alaihe says, “Successful is he who has pleased his Creator by (spending) his wealth.” Abul
Ahwas Rahmatullah alaihe said, “Allah Ta’ala Subhanohu has mercy on a person who gives Sadaqah and then
performs Salaat”. He then recited the above mentioned Ayat. In another version, he is reported to have said, “Let
him, who can afford, give something as Sadaqah before offering Salaat”.
Ibne Mas’ood Radhiallaho anho says, “When a person intends to observe Salaat, it will be better for him to give
something as Sadaqah before doing so.” He then recited this Ayat. Arfaja Radhiallaho anho says that he once
asked Ibne Mas’ood Radhiallaho anho to recite to him the Surah: Sabih bismi Rabikal A’laa
Glorify the name of thy Lord, the most High: (al-A’laa)
He began to recite it and when he came to the Ayat:
“But you prefer the life of this world”
he stopped short in the midst of recitation and addressing the people said, “We have preferred this life to the
Akhirah.” People sat listening quietly. He then again said, “We have preferred this life because we have seen the
beauty and adornment of the world, its women, its food and its drinks, while things of the Akhirah have been veiled
from us. We are engrossed in what is before us, forgetful of what we have been promised in the Akhirah!”
Qatadah Rahmatullah alaihe has said that all mankind are engaged in the present-day worldly activities, except
those who enjoy Allah’s protection, even though the Akhirah is far more valuable and everlasting. Anas Radhiallaho
anho has quoted Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam as saying that the Kalimah (lailaaha illAllah) saves people
from the displeasure of Allah Ta’ala as long as they do not give preference to their worldly requirements as against
the demands of religion, but when they begin to do so, the kalimah (lailaaha illAllah) is returned to them with the
Divine remarks, “You are telling a lie”.
In another Hadith, Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that whoever bears testimony to lailaaha illAllahu
wahdhahu lashareeka lahu will enter Jannah, unless he has mixed it with something averse to it and polluted his
faith with falsification. Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam repeated his words three times and the gathering
remained silent. Probably Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam wanted someone to ask about it, but the people
were quiet due to respect and awe. Finally a man got up from a distance and said, “O Rasulullah, may my parents
be sacrificed for your sake, what is the meaning of, ‘mixing it with something else?” He replied, “The love of this
world and preferring it to everything else, amassing wealth for its own sake and acting towards people unjustly and
cruelly”.
Another Hadith of Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam says, “Whoever loves this world harms his Akhirah and
when anyone loves the Akhirah he does harm to this world, therefore, prefer the love of the thing (Akhirah) that will
remain for ever, over the thing (this world) that will come to an end.” In another Hadith Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe
wasallam has said, “This world is the home of one who has no home in the Akhirah and it is the property of him who
has no share in Akhirah, and only that person collects or hoards for this life who lacks wisdom”.
A Hadith says that, amongst His entire creation, Allah Ta’ala does not dislike anything more than this world; He has
never looked at this world with kindness ever since He created it”.
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In another Hadith Rasulullah Sallallaho alaihe wasallam has said that the love of this life is the root-cause of all sins.
At the end of this book in Chapter six, a number of Ayaat and Ahadith regarding this life and Akhirah have been
given in a summarised form. In addition to all the Ayaat which have been mentioned uptil now in this volume, there
are many other Ayaat in the Holy Qur’an, exhorting us to spend for the cause of Allah Jalla Shanohu.
This subject has been treated again and again in a variety of ways by Allah Jalla Shanohu in the Holy Qur’an, with
different ways of persuasion to spend all. This shows its unquestionable importance, particularly, when all out of
which one spends is a grant from Allah Ta’ala. For example, a rich man gives his servant some money for his
personal needs but also says that he would like him to set aside a little money for such and such thing, and
promises him a bountiful reward in case he complies with his directions. In such an event, it is obvious that the
servant would gladly spend money on that particular thing, knowing that he would receive much more than what he
has spent on it.